Chapter 03A: Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 03A: Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations Deck (43):
1

Compound

Substance with 2+ elements CHEMICALLY combined in a DEFINITE proportion by mass

Can be decomposed into simpler substances

2

Chemical formula

An abbreviation for compounds

Contains symbols & ratio of atoms/elements

3

Molecular formula

Gives ACTUAL number of atoms of each element, in the smallest unit of substance

H2O

4

Empirical formula

Shows SIMPLEST (reduced) whole-number ratio of atoms in a substance

C6H12O6 --> CH2O

5

Structural formula

Uses lines to represent covalent bonds
Shows how atoms are connected or bonded to each other

6

Chemical bonds

Forces that hold atoms together in compounds

7

Ionic bond

*Type of chemical bond*
Attraction between oppositely charged ions
Occurs between metals (cations) and nonmetals (anions)
TRANSFER of 1+ electrons from metal to nonmetal

RESULT: Ionic compound

8

Covalent bond

*Type of chemical bond*
Occurs between 2+ nonmetals/metalloids
SHARING of electrons

RESULT: Molecule, molecular compound

9

Atomic elements

Exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units

(Most elements fall into this category)

10

Molecular elements

Exist normally in nature as molecules

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Diatomic elements (7)

H - Hydrogen
N - Nitrogen
O - Oxygen
F - Fluorine
Cl - Chlorine
Br - Bromine
I - Iodine

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Polyatomic elements (3)

P - Phosphorus (P4)
S - Sulfur (S8)
Se - Selenium (Se8)

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Ionic compound

Cation + anion

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Formula unit

Basic unit of ionic compound
The smallest, electrically neutral collection of ions

e.g. NaCl

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Monatomic ion

1 atom

e.g. Na ion

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Polyatomic ion

2+ atoms

e.g. nitrate

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Nomenclature: ionic

Metal + nonmetal/anion

Cation (charge) + anion + ide

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Nomenclature: molecular

Nonmetals/metalloids

Prefix (2+) + 1st element + prefix + 2nd element + ide

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Nomenclature: binary acid

Hydrogen + nonmetal

Hydro + nonmetal + ic + acid

*(aq) aqueous

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Nomenclature: oxyacid

Hydrogen + oxyanion

Oxyanion + ic (ate) OR ous (ite) + acid

*(aq) aqueous

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Acid

Substance that yields hydrogen ions when dissolved in water

Hydrogen is written first to indicate that a substance is an acid

*To be called an acid, compound must be dissolved in water

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Binary acid

Acid with only 2 elements

Format: HX

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Oxyacids

Acid with hydrogen cation/ion and an oxyanion

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Oxyanion prefix: per

One more oxygen than -ate

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Oxyanion suffix: ate

Becomes -ic acid

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Oxyanion suffix: ite

Becomes -ous acid

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Oxyanion prefix: hypo

One less oxygen than -ite

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Base

Substance that yields hydroxide ions when dissolved in water

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Hydrate

Ionic compounds (solids) that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them as part of their crystalline structure

Often decompose by losing water upon heating

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Anhydrous

Without water

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Waters of hydration

Number of water molecules present per formula unit (ionic compound)

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Nomenclature: hydrate

Ionic compound + hydrate prefix + hydrate

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Molecular prefix: 1

Mono-

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Molecular prefix: 2

Di-

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Molecular prefix: 3

Tri-

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Molecular prefix: 4

Tetra-

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Molecular prefix: 5

Penta-

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Molecular prefix: 6

Hexa-

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Molecular prefix: 7

Hepta-

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Molecular prefix: 8

Octa-

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Molecular prefix: 9

Nona-

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Molecular prefix: 10

Deca-

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Hydrate prefix: 1/2

Hemi-