Chapter 04: Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 04: Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions Deck (68)
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1

Stoichiometry

Quantitative relationships between products and reactants in chemical equations

Requires use of:
1) Balanced chemical equation
2) Conversion factor: mole ratios

2

Mole ratio

Ratio in units of moles relating any two species in a chemical reaction

Used as a conversion factor

 

3

Solving stoichoimetry problems

Mass (g) of compound A
to
Moles of compound A
using molar mass
Then to
Moles of compound B
using mole ratio
Then to
mass (g) of compound B
using molar mass

4

Limiting reactant (reagent)

Reactant that limits the amount of product that can be made

5

Excess reactant

Leftover reactant (not reacted) in a chemical reaction

6

Reaction yield: theoretical yield

The amount of product that would result if all the limiting reactant reacted

7

Reaction yield: actual yield

The amount of product that is actually obtained from a reaction

8

% yield

% yield =      actual yield        x 100
    theoretical yield

9

Solution

Homogenous mixture of 2+ substances

10

Solvent

Substance present in larger amount within solution

11

Solute

Substance(s) present with smaller amounts dissolved in solvent

12

Aqueous solution

Solution with water as solvent

13

Solution concentration

Qualitative and/or quantitative description of amount of solute in a solvent/solution

14

Molarity

Molarity (M) =       moles of solute (n)
                              liters of solution (V)

15

Dilute solution

Relatively small amount of dissolved solute

16

Concentrated solution

Relatively large amount of dissolved solute

17

Dilution

Procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution

18

Dilution formula

M1V1=M2V2

Where   M = molarity
             V = volume

*moles (n) of solute remain the same

19

Solute and solvent interactions

Attractive forces between solute particles, between solvent particles, and between solute and solvent particles

If attractions between solute and solvent are strong enough --> dissolve

20

Charge distribution in water molecule

Oxygen = partial charge negative
Hydrogen = partial charge positive

21

Hydration

Process in which an ion is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner

22

Electrolyte

Substance that, when dissolved in water, conducts electricity

Contain cations and anions --> dissolve into ions
(Ionic compounds, some acids, some bases)

23

Nonelectrolyte

Substance that, when dissolved in water, does not conduct electricity

No cations, no anions
(Molecular substances)

24

Strong electrolyte

Dissolve completely as ions

*Irreversible reaction.

Most salts, some acids and bases

25

Weak electrolyte

Do not dissolve completely as ions

*Reversible reaction

26

Dissociation

Ions of a salt separate as salt dissolves

27

Ionization

Process of ion formation in solution
Results from chemical reaction between water + compound
(acids, bases)

28

Soluble

A compound that dissolves in water

29

Insoluble

A compound that does not dissolve in water

30

Solubility

The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specifc temperature