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Bio 121 spring 2014 > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (43):
1

evolution

the process of change that has transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today.
decent from common ancestors.
diversity is explained by accumulation of heritable changes

2

biology

the scientific study of life

3

emergent properties

novel properties that emerge at each level that are absent from the previous level. small to big

4

systems biology

the exploartion of biological systems by analyzing the interactions among its parts

5

eukaryotic cell

contains membrane encloses organelles, the largest of which is the nucleus. plants, animals, fungi

6

prokaryotic cell

lacks a nucleus or other membrane enclosed organelles. simpler and smaller. bacteria and archae

7

DNA

the substances of genes. chromosomes contain most of a cells genetic material in the form of DNA.

8

genes

units of inheritance that transmit info from parent to offspring.

9

gene expression

the process by which the info in a gene directs the manufacture of a cellular product

10

genome

the entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits is called its genome

11

genomics

studying whole sets of genes (or other DNA) in one or more species

12

proteomics

the study of sets of protiens and their properties

13

bioinformatics

the use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that results from high throughput methods

14

producers

plants and other photosynthetic organisms

15

consumers

animals, feed on producers and other consumers

16

feedback regualtion

the output, or product, of a process regulates the very process

17

DNA is composed of...

nucleotides. A-T, C-G

18

________->_______->______->

DNA->mRNA->protiens
first arrow transcribed, second arrow translated

19

what do genes do?

code for protiens. nuclieotides a,t,c,g, code for specific protiens

20

8 levels of taxonomy

Domain, kingdom, phyllum, class, order, family, genus, species

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3 domains of life

bacteria and archea (prokaryote), and eukarya

22

3 kingdoms of eukarya

animals-ingetsed
plants-photosynthesis
fungi- absorbs

protists- eukaryotic but on its own

23

Darwin

origin of species
decent with modification, the mechanism is natural selection
individuals that are best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce. overtime, more individuals in a population will have the advantageous traits. Environment "selects: for those traits.

24

natural selection does not...

create, but edits heritable variation.

25

draw a evolutionary tree

boo

26

explain the mouse experiement p 19-21

white mice and brown mice. controls, why are they neccesary? see sla notes

27

natural selection

mechanism of evolution

28

negative feedback

a loop in which the response reduces the initial stimulus
most common

29

positive feedback

end product speeds up its own production

30

science

way of knowing

31

inquiry

search for information that explains phenomena

32

data

recorded info

33

qualititative data

recorded discriptions

34

inductive reasoning

generalizations from a large number of specific information

35

hypothesis

a tentative answer to a well framed question

36

deductive reasoning

general to specific. "if...then..."

37

experiment

manipulating a factor to see the effect

38

variable

factors that vary in an experiment

39

controlled experiment

one that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group

40

independent variable

factor manipulated by researchers, mouse color

41

dependent variable

factor that is measured by the experiment
amount of predation

42

theory

an explaniation in broader scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses and is supported by a large body of evidence

43

model organism

species that lends itself well to lab work