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1

What are the 3 fundamental characteristics of human development?

-Nature and nurture
-Continuity and discontinuity
-Universal and context-specific development

2

Nature and Nurture

Nature:
-biologically given, born
-based on genetic inheritance

Nurture:
-all environmental influences including the physical, social, and cultural world

Both aspects, biological and environmental influences, are intertwined,

3

Continuity and discontinuity

continuity: do personality characteristics remain the same or progress smoothly

Discontinuity: are personaility characteristics a series of abrupt shifts

EX: whistling (at one time you can't whistle then BAM you can)

4

Universal vs. Context-specific

- Is there just one developmental path or several?
- Are developmental changes common to all humans or different across cultures, subcultures, contexts, and individuals?

The US is individualistic culture whereas other countries are more communalistic.

5

Theory

an organized set of ideas

6

A good theory produces

testable hypotheses.

7

Psychodynamic Theory

- Freud
- Central notion: humans have instincts that motivate behavior.
- unconscious motivation

8

Id

impulsive, selfish part of personality

9

Ego

rational aspect that seeks to gratify instincts

10

Superego

internalized moral standards

11

What did Freud do right?

- publicized psychology
- highlighted impact of unconscious mind
- emphasized importance of early experience
- emphasized importance of emotions and emotional conflicts.

12

Erikson

- most influential neo-Freudian
- lifespan theory
- successful resolution of crises leads to proper development

13

strengths of Erikson

- emphasis on rational and adpative nature
- emphasis on interaction between biological and social influences
- influenced research into adolescence and adulthood

14

Learning Theory

- behaviorism
- social learning theory

15

behaviorism

- Skinner
- consequences of a behavior determine whether or not that behavior is repeated in the future

16

social cognitive theory

- Bandura
- learning occurs through imitation or observational learning.

17

Cognitive-Developmental Theory

- how people think and how thinking changes over time

18

Piaget's theory

children create theories about the world and test them out through experience.

19

information processing theory

human cognition consists of mental hardware (cognitive structures) and mental software (sets of cognitive processes)

20

Vygotsky's theory

every aspect of a child's development must be considered against backdrop of culture.

21

Ecological and Systems Perspective

- development is inseparable from the environment in which a person develops.

22

Lifespan Theory

- development cannot be understood in the scope of one framework
- must appreciate an adult's childhood and adolescence in order to understand them.

23

Lifespan Development

ontogenic development is a lifelong process. No age period hold supremacy

24

Multidirectionality

considerable diversity or pluralism is found in the directionality of changes

25

Gain-Loss dynamic

- the process of development is not a simple movement toward higher efficacy.
- development across consists of the joint occurrence of gain and loss

26

Plasticity/Constraints

the key developmental agenda is the search for the range of plasticity and its constraints

27

Historical Embeddedness

age-related development is markedly influenced by sociocultural conditions existing in a given historical period

28

Contextualism as Paradigm

individual development can be understood as the outcome of the interactions among three systems of developmental influences and variations therein: age-graded, history-graded, and non normative influences

29

Naturalistic observations

- observing a person in real-life situation

how they started studying aggressive behavior in children

30

Structured observations

- creating a setting to bring out the behavior of interest
- pitfall is bringing out an unnatural or unrealistic behavior.

31

Reliability

extent to which a measure provides a consistent index of a characteristic

32

validity

the extent to which a measure assess what the reachers thinks it is assessing.

33

correlational studies

relationships between variables that exist naturally in the world

34

Experimental studies

systematic ways of manipulating the independent variables in order to cause a particular behavior (dependent variables)

35

experimental studies operate by

randomly assigning people to one condition or the other.

36

qualitative research

allows the researcher to gain an in-depth understanding of human behavior and what governs it.

37

qualitative research is helpful if

if you want a generate a quantitative study which is just numbers.

38

longitudinal studies

- same individuals are tested throughout their lives.
- most direct way to identify change.

39

cross-sectional studies

- compares the performances of people of different age groups or cohorts (group of individuals born at the same time)
- provides information about age differences

40

age effects

relationship between age and a particular aspect of development

41

cohort effects

effects of being born a member of a cohort or a generation in a historical context.

42

sequential designs

combine the cross-sectional and the longitudinal approach and improve on both