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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (37):
1

Piaget's Constructivist Approach

- noticed that children of the same age made same mistakes
- studied how children think
- initial studies were his naturalistic observations of his own kids
- children construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their words
- universal stages
- discontinuous development
- humans are active constructor of their own knowledge

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how children build schemas

by the process of assimilation and accommodation

3

cognitive structures

organized patterns of action of thought that people construct to interpret their experiences

4

organization

existing schemes are systematically combined into new and complex schemes

5

adaptation

process of adjusting to the demands of the environment that occurs through assimilation and accommodation

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organized and rearranged through

assimilation and accommodation

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assimilation

- using current schemes to interpret external world
- we have a schema for dogs and fit our experience with a new animal (cat) into other existing schema for dogs

8

accommodation

- adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment
- we have a schema for dogs, but the animal we see is small and meows so we must change our scheme in order to accommodate the new animal

9

cognitive conflict

- occurs when new events seriously challenge old schemes or love our existing schemes to be inadequate
- stimulates cognitive growth
- motivated to reduce cognitive growth through equilibration

10

equilibration

process of achieving mental stability so that our internal thoughts are consistent with the evidence in the external world

11

equilibrium and disequilibrium

- use assimilation during equilibrium
- disequilibrium prompts accommodation

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organization

- internal rearranging and linking schemes

13

sensorimotor stage

- birth to 2 years
- world understood through senses and action
- dominant cognitive structures are the behavioral schemes that develop through coordination of sensory information and motor responses.

14

preoperational stage

- age 2-7
- reliance on perceptions and lack of logical thought means that children have difficulty with conservation

15

object permanence

understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight
- 8-12 months

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conservation

the idea that certain properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in a superficial way 

17

egocentrism

a tendency to view the world solely from one's own perspective and to have difficulty reorganizing other points of view.

18

classification

- using criteria to sort objects on the basis of characteristics such as shape, color, function.

19

Criticism of Piaget's theory

- underestimates cognitive competence in infants and overestimates competence in adolescents.
- undervalues influence of sociocultural environment

20

learning takes several forms

- habituation
- classical conditioning
- operant conditioning

21

classical conditioning

neutral stimulus elicits a response originally produced by another stimulus

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operant conditioning

reward and punishment determine the likelihood that behavior will reoccur.

23

imitating

infants are able to imitate adult facial expressions; young children imitate behavior of others.

24

information processing

- human thinking based on mental hardware and mental software

25

mental hardware

mental and neural structures that are built in and that allow the mind to operate

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mental software

mental programs that are the basis for performing particular tasks.

27

attention

processes that determine whether information is processed further by an individual

28

orienting response

an unfamiliar stimulus produces a change in heart rate and brain waves..

29

habituation

the diminished response to a stimulus once it becomes familiar.

30

important features of memory in young babies

- events from past are remembered
- over time, events no longer recalled
- cues prompt memories that seem to have been forgotten

31

involved in memory storage

- hippocampus
- amygdala

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involved in memory retrieval

- frontal cortex

33

autobiographical memory

people's memory of the experience/events of their own lives.

34

Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective

- culture and society are pivotal in his theory
- knowledge depends on social experience
- cognitive development varies from society to society depending upon the mental tools such as language that the culture values and makes available
- children acquire mental tools through interaction with parents and other more experienced members of society and by adopting their language and knowledge.
- of all theories, only one that almost exclusively focuses on social and cultural interactions

35

zone of proximal development

the gap between what a learner can accomplish independently and what she can accomplish with the guidance and encouragement of a more skilled partner.

36

guided participation

children's active participation in culturally relevant activities with the aid and support of parents and other knowledgable guides.

37

private speech

speech to oneself that guides one's thoughts and behavior. children do quite a bit.