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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (208):
1

Human Development

the multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time

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recurring issues in human development

nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, universal vs context specific development, biopsychosocial framework, neuroscience

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nature vs nurture

the degree to which genetic or hereditary influences (nature) and experimental or environmental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person you are

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continuity vs discontinutiy

whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the lifespan (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity)

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universal vs context specific development

whether there is just one path of development or several paths

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biopsychosocial framework

a useful way to organize the biological, psychological, or sociocultural forces of human development

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different parts of biopsychosocial framework

biological, psychological, sociocultural, and life cycle forces

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biological forces

genetic and health related factors

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psychological forces

all internal cognitive, emotional, perceptual, and personality factors

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sociocultural forces

interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors

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life cycle forces

differences in how the same event effects different people

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neuroscience

the study of the brain and nervous system, especially in terms of brain-behavior relationships

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theory

an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development

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Psychodynamic theories

theories by proposing that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages

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psychosocial theory

Erikson’s proposal that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands

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epigenetic theory

in Erikson’s theory, the idea that each psychosocial strength has its own period of particular importance

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behaviorsm

BF Skinner. Do consequences of behavior determine if behavior is repeated in the future?

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reinforcement

a consequence that increases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows

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punishment

a consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior it follows

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Imitation or observational learning:

learning that occurs by watching how others behave

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Self efficacy:

peoples beliefs about their own abilities and talents

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Cognitive Developmental theory:

the thought process and construction of knowledge

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Piaget's theory

1. sensorimotor stage
2. preoperational
3. concrete operational
4. formal operational

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sensorimotor

birth to 2 years. Knowledge based on senses and motor skills

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preoperational

2 – 6 years. Symbols as language, only through their perspective

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concrete operational

7 years to early adolescence. Understands and applies logical operations to experiences provided they are focused on here and now

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formal operational

adolescence +. Thinks abstractly, deals with hypothetical situations, speculates about what may be possible.

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information processing theory

proposes human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software

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Vygotsky’s theory:

must consider child’s development against background or environment

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Ecological theory:

based on the idea that human development is inseparable from the environmental contexts in which a person develops

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Bronfenbrenner’s theory

1. microsystem
2. mesosystem
3. exosystem
4. macrosystem

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microsystem

the people and objects in an individual’s immediate environment

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mesosystem

provides connections across microsystem

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exosystem

the social settings a person may not experience first hand but that still influence development

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macrosystem

the cultures and subcultures in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded

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competence

a person's abilities

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enviromental press

the demands put on an individual by the environment

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lifespan perspective

human development is multiply determined and cannot be understood within the scope of a single framework

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selective optimization with compensation model

the model in which three processes (selection, optimization, and compensation) form a system of behavioral action that generates and regulates development and aging

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life course perspective

the ways in which various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical contexts

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systematic observation

watching people and carefully recording what they do or say

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naturalistic observation

people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation

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structured obseravtions

the researcher creates a setting that is likely to elicit the behavior of interest

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self reports

people’s answers to questions about the topic of interest

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reliability

the extent to which a measure provides a consistent index of a characteristic

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validity

the extent to which a measure actually assess what you think it assess

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populations

broad groups od people that are of interest to researchers

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sample

a subset of the population

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correlational study

an investigation that looks at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world

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correlational coefficient

an expression of the strength and direction of a relation between two variables

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experiment

a systemic way of manipulating the key factor or factors that the investigator thinks causes a particular behavior

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independent variable

the variable being manipulated

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dependent variable

the variable being observed

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qualitative research

a method that involves gaining in-depth understanding of human behavior and what governs it

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longitudinal study

a research design in which the same individuals are observed or tested repeatedly at different points in their lives

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cross sectional study

a study in which developmental differences are identified by testing people of different ages

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cohort effects

problems with cross sectional designs in which differences between age groups (cohorts) may result as easily from environmental events as from developmental processes

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sequential design

a developmental research design based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs

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chromosomes

threadlike structures in the nuclei of cells that contain genetic material

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autosomes

the first 22 pairs of chromosomes

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sex chromosomes

the 23rd pair of chromosomes, which determines the sex of the child

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DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that composes one chromosome, making it the biochemical basis of heredity

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genes

a group of compounds that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions

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genotype

the complete set of genes that make up a person’s heredity

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phenotype

physical, behavioral, and psychological features that result from the interactions between an individual’s genes and their environment

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alleles

variations of genes

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homozygous

alleles in a pair of chromosomes that are the same

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heterozygous

alleles in a pair of chromosomes that are different

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dominant

the allele who’s chemical instructions are followed

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recessive

the allele who’s chemical instructions are ignored in the presence of a dominant allele

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polygenetic inheritence

phenotypes are the result of the combined activity of many separate genes

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monozygotic twins

the result of a single fertilized egg splitting to form two new individuals; also called identical twins

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dizygotic twins

the result of two separate eggs fertilized by two sperm; also called fraternal twins

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niche picking

the process of deliberately seeking environments that are compatible with one’s genetic makeup

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non-shared environmental influences

forces within a family that make siblings different from one another

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prenatal development

the many changes that turn a fertilized egg into a newborn human

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zygote

a fertilized egg

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germ disk

small cluster of cells near the center of the zygote that will eventually develop to form a baby

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placenta

a structure thought which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the pregnant woman and developing child

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implantation

the zygote burrows into the uterine wall and establishes connections with a woman’s blood vessels

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embryo

the term given to zygote after it is completely implanted into the uterine wall

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amnion

the inner sac in which the developing child rests

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amnionic fluid

the fluid surrounding the fetus

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period of the fetus

the longest period of prenatal development, extending from the 9th until the 38th week after conception

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umbilical cord

the structure containing veins and arteries that connects the developing child to the placenta

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age of viability

the age, typically 22-28 weeks after conception, at which a fetus can survive if born because most of its body systems function adequately

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teratogen

an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development

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fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

a disorder affecting babies who’s mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while they were pregnant

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ultrasound

a prenatal diagnostic technique that uses sound waves to generate an image of the fetus

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amniocentesis

a prenatal diagnostic technique that uses a syringe to withdraw a sample of amniotic fluid through a pregnant woman’s abdomen

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Chorionic villus sampling (CVS):

a prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion

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fetal medicine

a field of medicine concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth

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hypoxia

a birth complication in which umbilical blood flow is disrupted and the infant does not receive adequate oxygen

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preterm

premature, babies born before the 36th week

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low birth weight

newborns who weigh less than 2500 grams (5.5 pounds)

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very low birth weight

newborns who weigh less than 1500 grams (3.3 pounds)

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extremely low birth weight

newborns who weigh less than 1000 grams (2.2 pounds)

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infant mortality

the percentage of infants who die before their 1st birthday

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in vitro fertilization

the process by which sperm and an egg are mixed in a petri dish to create a zygote, which is then placed in a woman’s uterus

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eugenics

the effort to improve human species by letting only people whose characteristics are valued by society mate and pass along their genes

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reflexes

unlearned responses triggered by specific stimulation

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alert inactivity

the state in which a baby is calm, with eyes open and attentive, and seems to be deliberately inspecting its environment

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waking activity

the state in which baby’s eyes are open but seem unfocused while arms and legs move in bursts of uncontrolled motion

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crying

the state in which a baby cries vigorously, usually accompanied by agitated but uncoordinated movement

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sleeping

the state in which a baby alternates from being still and breathing regularly to moving gently and breathing irregularly, with the eyes closed throughout

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basic cry

a cry that starts softly, gradually becomes more intense, and is often heard when babies are hungry or tired

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mad cry

a more intense version of a basic cry

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pain cry

a cry that begins with a sudden long burst, followed by a long pause and gasping

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irregular or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

sleep in which the infant’s eyes dart rapidly beneath the eyelids while the body is quite active

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regular (non-REM) sleep

sleep in which the heart rate, breathing, and brain activity are steady

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SIDS

sudden infant death syndrome, when a healthy baby dies suddenly for no apparent reason

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temperament

A consistent style or pattern of behavior

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malnourished

being small for age because of inadequate nutrition

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neuron

a basic cellular unit of the brain and nervous system that specializes in receiving and transmitting information

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cell body

the center of the neuron that keeps the neuron alive

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dendrite

the end of the neuron that receives information, which looks like a tree with many branches

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axon

a tube-like structure that emerges from the cell body and transmits information to other neurons

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terminal buttons

small knobs at the end of the axon that release neurotransmitters

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neurotransmitters

chemicals released by terminal buttons that allow neurons to communicate with one another

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cerebral cortex

the wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctly human

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hemispheres

right and left halves of the cortex

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corpus callosum

a thick bundle of neurons that connects the brain’s two hemispheres

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frontal cotex

the brain region that regulates personality and goal-directed behavior

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neural plate

a flat group of cells present in prenatal development that becomes the brain and spinal cord

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myelin

a fatty sheath that wraps around neurons and enables them to transmit information more rapidly

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synaptic pruning

a gradual reduction in the number or synapses, beginning in infancy and continuing until early adolescence

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experience-expectant growth

the process by which the wiring of the brain is organized by experiences that are common to most humans

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motor skills

coordinated movements of the muscles and limbs

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locomotion

the ability to move around in the world

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fine motor skills

body movements associated with grasping, holding, and manipulated objects

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dynamic systems theory

the theory that views motor development as involving many distinct skills that are organized and reorganized over time to meet specific needs

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differentiation

distinguishing and mastering individual motions

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integration

linking individual motions into a coherent, coordinated whole

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perception

processes by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, and organizes incoming nerve impulses that are the result of physical stimulation

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visual cliff

a glass covered platform that appears to have a shallow side and a deep side and is used to study the infants’ depth perception

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kinetic cues

cues to depth perception in which motion is used to estimate depth

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visual expansion

a kinetic clue to depth perception that is based an object filling an ever-greater proportion of the retina as it moves closer

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motion parallax

a kinetic cue to depth perception based on nearby objects moving across our visual field faster than distant moving objects

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retinal disparity

a way of inferring depth based on differences in the retinal images in the left and right eyes

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pictorial cues

cues to depth perception that are used to covey depth in drawings and paintings

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linear perspective

a cue to depth perception based on parallel lines coming together at a single point in the distance

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texture gradient

a perceptual cue to depth based on the texture of objects changing from coarse to distinct for nearby objects to finer and less distinct for distant objects

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intersensory redundancy

being attuned to information presented simultaneously to different sensory models

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theory of mind

ideas about connections among thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and behavior that create an intuitive understanding of the link between mind and behavior

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schemes

according to Piaget, mental structures that organize information and regulate behavior

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assimilation

according to Piaget, taking in information that is compatible with what is already known

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accommodation

according to Piaget, changing existing knowledge based on new knowledge

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equilibrium

according to Piaget, a process by which when disequilibrium occurs, children reorganize their schemes to return to a state of equilibrium

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sensorimotor period

the first of Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development, which lasts from birth to approximately 2 years

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object permanence

the understanding, acquired in infancy, that objects exist independently

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egocentric

having difficulty seeing the world from another’s point of view, a characteristic typical of children in the preoperational period

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centration

according to Piaget, a narrowly focused type of thought characteristic of preoperational children

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core knowledge hypothesis

the theory that infants are born with rudimentary knowledge of the world, which is elaborated based on experiences

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mental hardware

mental and neural structures that are build in and that allow the mind to operate

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mental software

mental “programs” that are the basis for preforming particular tasks

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attention

processes that determine which information is processed further by an individual

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orienting response

an individual views a strong or unfamiliar stimulus, and changes in heart rate and brain wave activity occur

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habituation

becoming unresponsive to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly

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classical conditioning

a form of learning that involves pairing a neutral; stimulus and a response originally produced by another stimulus

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operant conditioning

a form of learning in which reward and punishment determine the likelihood that a behavior will recur

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autobiographical memory

memories of the significant events and experiences of someone’s own life

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one to one principle

a counting principle that states that there must be one and only one number name for each object counted

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stable order principle

a counting principle that states that there must be one and only one number name for each object counted

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cardinality principle

a counting principle in which the last number name denotes the number of objects being counted

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zone of proximal development

the difference between what children can do with assistance and what they can do alone

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scaffolding

a style in which teaches gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learner’s needs

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private speech

a child’s comments that are not intended for others but are designed to help regulate the child’s behavior

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phonemes

unique sounds used to create words, making them the basic building blocks of language

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infant directed speech

speech that adults use with infants that is slow, has exaggerated changes in pitch and volume, and is thought to aid in language acquisition

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cooing

early vowel-like sounds that babies produce

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babbling

speech-like sounds that consist of vowel-consonant combinations and are common at about six months

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fast mapping

a child’s connections between words and referents that are made so quickly that he or she cannot consider all possible meanings of the word

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underextension

when children define words more narrowly than adults do

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overextension

when children define words more broadly than adults do

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referential style

a language learning style of children whose vocabularies are dominated by names of objects, people, and actions

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expressive style

a language learning style of children whose vocabularies include many social phrases that are used like one word

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telegraphic speech

speech used by young children that contains only words necessary to convey a message

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Grammatical morphemes:

words or endings of words that make a sentence grammatical

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overregularizations

grammatical usage that results from applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule

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hope

according to Erikson, an openness to new experience tempered by wariness that occurs when trust and mistrust are in balance

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will

according to Erikson, a young child’s understanding that he or she can act on the world intentionally, which occurs when autonomy, shame, and doubt are in balance

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purpose

according to Erikson, a balance between individual initiative and willingness to cooperate with others

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attachment

enduring socioeconomical relationships between infants and their caregivers

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secure attachment

a relationship in which infants have come to trust and depend on their mothers

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avoidant attachment

a relationship in which infants turn from their mothers when they are reunited following a brief separation

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resistant attachment

a relationship in which, after a brief separation, infants want to be held but are difficult to console

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disorganized (disoriented) attachment

a relationship in which infants don’t seem to understand what’s happening when they are separated and later reunited with their mothers

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internal working model

an infant’s understanding of how responsive and dependable the mother is, which is thought to influence the close relationships throughout the child’s life

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basic emotions

emotions influenced by humankinds and that consist of three elements: a subjective feeling, a physiological change, and an overt behavior

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social smiles

smiles that influence produce when they see a human face

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stranger warriness

the first distinct signs of fear that emerge around six months of age when infants become wary in the presence of unfamiliar adults

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social referencing behavior

behavior in which infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environments look at adults for cues to help them interpret the situation

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parallel play

when children play alone but are aware of and interested in what another child is doing

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simple social play

play that begins ad about 15 to 18 months and continues into toddlerhood, when talking and smiling at each other also occur

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cooperative play

play that s organized around a theme, with each child taking on a different role, and that begins around 2 years of age

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enabling actions

individuals’ actions and remarks that tend to support others and sustain the interaction

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constricting actions

interactions in which one partner tries to emerge as the victor by threatening or contradicting the other

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prosocial behavior

any behavior that benefits another person

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altruism

prosocial behavior such as helping and sharing in which the individual does not benefit directly from the behavior

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empathy

experiencing another person’s feelings

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social role

a set of cultural guidelines about how one should behave, especially with other people

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gender stereotypes

beliefs and images about males and females that are not necessarily true

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relational agression

aggression used to hurt others by undermining their social relationships

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gender identity

a sense of oneself as male of female

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gender labeling

young children’s understanding that they are either boys or girls and naming of themselves accordingly

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gender stability

the understanding in preschool children that boys become men and girls become women

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gender constancy

the understanding that maleness and femaleness do not change over situations or personal wishes

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gender-schema theory

a theory that states that children want to learn more about an activity only after first deciding whether it is masculine or feminine