What are the 6 essential life processes?
3)growth and development
Define the life process of organization.
some form of complex structure and order
Define the life process of metabolism.
sum of all of the catabolic (breaking down) and anabolic (building up) chemical processes in the body. Ex) amino acids to proteins and proteins to amino acids
Define the life process of growth and development.
increase in body size due to an increase in size of the cells or number of the cells.
Define the life process of responsiveness.
the body's ability to detect and respond to stimuli
Define the life process of regulation.
adjusting internal conditions as the external environment changes
define the life process of reproduction.
production of a new individual or new cells (growth, repair, replace)
the study of the body - structure and form
the study of body function
what are the 6 levels of organization from smallest to largest?
1)chemical- atomic and molecular 2)cellular 3)tissue 4)organ 5)system 6)organism
what type of molecules are involved at the chemical level?
-atoms -inorganic and organic molecules
what is a cell?
basic structural and functional units of an organism
group of cells that work together to perform a similar function
what are the 4 basic types of tissues?
1)Epithelium -covers body’s surfaces
2)Connective tissue- connects, supports, protects
3)Muscles -used for movement, generate heat
4)Nerves- carry information
structures composed of 2 or more kinds of tissues
what is an organ system?
related organs with a common function. ex)digestive system: stomach, gallbladder, small and large intestines
what is involved in the Integumentary system?
skin, hair, nails
what is involved in the Skeletal system?
bones and joints
what is involved in the Muscular system?
skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles
what is involved in the nervous system?
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs.
what is involved in the endocrine system?
hormone producing cells and glands
what is involved in the cardiac system?
heart, blood, and blood vessels
what is involved in the lymphatic system?
lymphatic fluid, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes
what is involved in the respiratory system?
airways, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
what is involved in the digestive system?
esophagus, stomach, intestines
what is involved in the urinary system?
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
what is involved in the reproductive system?
ovaries, uterus and vagina in females, and the testes and penis in males.
what is the anatomical position?
the subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level, the eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor directed forward, and the arms at their sides, palms forward
above, top, towards the head
below, bottom, away from the head
define anterior (ventral)
towards the front
towards the back
towards the midline
away from the midline
between medial and lateral
nearest the origin of a limb
farther away from the origin of the limb
when do you use the terms proximal and distal
when talking about limbs. -use superior and inferior when talking about everything else
towards the surface
towards the core
what are body planes?
imaginary flat surfaces that separate the body or body part into portions
coronal plane (frontal)
vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior
transverse place (cross-sectional)
horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior (top and bottom)
vertical plane that divides the body into EQUAL left and right halves
sagittal plane (parasagittal)
divides the body into left and right halves at any number of sites
divides the body at an angle
-A condition of equilibrium in the body’s internal environment. -keep the body functions in a narrow range that is compatible with maintaining life
what factors challenge homeostasis?
Ex) intense heat, lack of oxygen
Changes in the internal environment
Ex) drop in blood glucose due to lack of food
Ex) demands of work, school, etc.
what is a negitive feedback system?
Reverses a change in a controlled condition
what are the three components of a feedback system?
Receptor (detects change and sends signal)
Control center (processes info sent, and make decisions)
Effector (Carries out actions)
what is a positive feedback system?
Strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions
ex) breast feeding - stimulus - hypothalamus - oxytocin - increased milk production
Explain the scientific method.
-examine natural events through observation
-form a hypothesis
-test the hypothesis
-make a decision on hypothesis (support data or reject?)
what does microscopic anatomy involve and what are the 2 subcategories?
-structures that aren't visible without a microscope
-cytology - study of the body cells and structure
-histology - study of tissues
what does Gross Anatomy involve?
structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye (intestines, kidney, stomach, brain)
what are the 5 categories of gross anatomy?
-Systemic - anatomy of functional body system
-Reginal - examines structures in a specific region (armpit)
-Surface - focuses on superficial anatomic markings and the internal structures that relate to th skin covering them
-comparative - similarities and differences among species
-embryology - developmental changes occurring from conception to birth
changes resulting from disease
What is included in the appendicular region?
upper and lower limbs - attatch to the axial region
Whats does the axial region include?
head, neck, trunk
*forms vertical axis of body