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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (59):
1

What are the 6 essential life processes?

1) organization

2)metabolism

3)growth and development

4)responsiveness

5)regulation

6)reproduction

2

Define the life process of organization.

some form of complex structure and order

3

Define the life process of metabolism.

sum of all of the catabolic (breaking down) and anabolic (building up) chemical processes in the body. Ex) amino acids to proteins and proteins to amino acids

4

Define the life process of growth and development.

increase in body size due to an increase in size of the cells or number of the cells.

5

Define the life process of responsiveness.

the body's ability to detect and respond to stimuli

6

Define the life process of regulation.

adjusting internal conditions as the external environment changes

7

define the life process of reproduction.

production of a new individual or new cells (growth, repair, replace)

8

define anatomy

the study of the body - structure and form

9

define physiology

the study of body function

10

what are the 6 levels of organization from smallest to largest?

1)chemical- atomic and molecular 2)cellular 3)tissue 4)organ 5)system 6)organism

11

what type of molecules are involved at the chemical level?

-atoms -inorganic and organic molecules

12

what is a cell?

basic structural and functional units of an organism

13

define tissue

group of cells that work together to perform a similar function

14

what are the 4 basic types of tissues?

1)Epithelium -covers body’s surfaces

2)Connective tissue- connects, supports, protects

3)Muscles -used for movement, generate heat

4)Nerves- carry information

15

define organs

structures composed of 2 or more kinds of tissues

16

what is an organ system?

related organs with a common function. ex)digestive system: stomach, gallbladder, small and large intestines

17

what is involved in the Integumentary system?

skin, hair, nails

18

what is involved in the Skeletal system?

bones and joints

19

what is involved in the Muscular system?

skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles

20

what is involved in the nervous system?

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs.

21

what is involved in the endocrine system?

hormone producing cells and glands

22

what is involved in the cardiac system?

heart, blood, and blood vessels

23

what is involved in the lymphatic system?

lymphatic fluid, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes

24

what is involved in the respiratory system?

airways, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

25

what is involved in the digestive system?

esophagus, stomach, intestines

26

what is involved in the urinary system?

kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

27

what is involved in the reproductive system?

ovaries, uterus and vagina in females, and the testes and penis in males.

28

what is the anatomical position?

the subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level, the eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor directed forward, and the arms at their sides, palms forward

29

define superior

above, top, towards the head

30

define inferior

below, bottom, away from the head

31

define anterior (ventral)

towards the front

32

define posterior

towards the back

33

define medial

towards the midline

34

define lateral

away from the midline

35

define intermediate

between medial and lateral

36

define proximal

nearest the origin of a limb

37

define distal

farther away from the origin of the limb

38

when do you use the terms proximal and distal

when talking about limbs. -use superior and inferior when talking about everything else

39

define superficial

towards the surface

40

define deep

towards the core

41

what are body planes?

imaginary flat surfaces that separate the body or body part into portions

42

coronal plane (frontal)

vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior

43

transverse place (cross-sectional)

horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior (top and bottom)

44

midsagittal plane

vertical plane that divides the body into EQUAL left and right halves

45

sagittal plane (parasagittal)

divides the body into left and right halves at any number of sites

46

oblique planes

divides the body at an angle 

47

define homeostasis

-A condition of equilibrium in the body’s internal environment. -keep the body functions in a narrow range that is compatible with maintaining life

48

what factors challenge homeostasis?

Physical insults

Ex) intense heat, lack of oxygen

Changes in the internal environment

Ex) drop in blood glucose due to lack of food

Physiological stress

Ex) demands of work, school, etc.

49

what is a negitive feedback system?

Reverses a change in a controlled condition

50

what are the three components of a feedback system?

Receptor (detects change and sends signal)

Control center (processes info sent, and make decisions)

Effector (Carries out actions)

51

what is a positive feedback system?

Strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions

ex) breast feeding - stimulus - hypothalamus - oxytocin - increased milk production

52

Explain the scientific method.

-examine natural events through observation

-form a hypothesis

-test the hypothesis

-make a decision on hypothesis (support data or reject?)

53

what does microscopic anatomy involve and what are the 2 subcategories?

-structures that aren't visible without a microscope

-cytology - study of the body cells and structure

-histology - study of tissues

54

what does Gross Anatomy involve?

structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye (intestines, kidney, stomach, brain)

55

what are the 5 categories of gross anatomy?

-Systemic - anatomy of functional body system

-Reginal - examines structures in a specific region (armpit)

-Surface - focuses on superficial anatomic markings and the internal structures that relate to th skin covering them

-comparative - similarities and differences among species

-embryology - developmental changes occurring from conception to birth

56

Pathologic anatomy

changes resulting from disease

57

58

What is included in the appendicular region?

upper and lower limbs - attatch to the axial region

59

Whats does the axial region include?

head, neck, trunk

*forms vertical axis of body