Chapter 9 - Articulations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Articulations Deck (45):
1

functional classification is based on...

the degree of movement permitted

2

name and describe the 3 functional classifications of joints.

synarthroses - immovable (btw skull bones)
amphiarthroses - slightly movable
diarthroses - move freely

3

structural classification is based on...

anatomy

4

name and describe the 3 structural classifications of joints.

fibrous joints - bones held together by dense irregular CT
cartilaginous joints - bones held together by cartilage
synovial joints - have synovial cavity, bones held together by ligaments

5

Describe fibrous joints

lacking cartilage and synovial cavity, usually synarthroses (little movment)

6

what are 3 examples of fibrous joints?

Ex #1) Suture joints in skull
Ex #2) Syndesmoses- greater distance btw bones, more dense irregular CT than suture joints (btw radius and ulna)
Ex #3) Interosseous membranes – binds neighboring long bones

7

Describe cartilaginous joints.

-consist of a bar of cartilage between two bones
-Usually amphiarthroses – little to no movement
(ex) pubic symphasis, intervertebral discs

8

Describe synovial joints

-Ligaments hold bones together
-Forms a synovial cavity composed of an outer fibrous capsule and inner synovial membrane
**Always diarthroses (free moving)
-Articular cartilage on the ends of the bones

9

describe synovial fluid and what secretes this.

-dense viscous fluid
-secreted by synovial membrane

10

purpose of synovial fluid.

-reduces friction by lubricating the joint
-Absorbs shock
-Supplies oxygen and nutrients
-removes waste from cartilage

11

name and describe the 2 accessory structures of synovial joints

ligaments --> considered to be outside joint
Bursae --> fluid filled structure to minimize friction (similar to synovial) but it is only found where there may be increased friction (extra padding) only where there is bone on bone

12

define menisci and their purpose

-pads of dense fibrocartilage btw articular surfaces
-Provides additional strength and stability
-Fits bones of different space (fills space creating a tighter fit)
-Shock absorber
-More even weight distribution
-Nerve and blood supply

13

list the 6 types of synovial joints from least to most mobile.

1.planar joint
2.hinge joint
3.pivot joint
4.condyloid joint
5.saddle joint
6.ball-and-socket joint

14

describe the planar joint

-Flat bones sliding
ex) between carpals

15

describe the hinge joint

-Looks like a hinged door
ex) Elbow joint

16

describe the pivot joint

ex) atlas rotates around the axis

17

describe the condyloid joint

-Convex oval structure
ex) Between radius and carpal joints

18

describe the saddle joint

-Looks like a rider in a saddle
ex) Between thumb, metacarpal, and carpal

19

describe the ball and socket joint

-Allows for a lot of movement and rotation
ex) Hip joint

20

define Range of Motion (ROM)

the range, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of a joint can be moved.

21

what are the 4 factors that contribute to a joint's ROM?

1.Structure or shape of articulating bones
2.Strength and tension of muscles and ligaments
3.Hormones
ex)Relaxin increases flexibility of pubic symphysis, loosen between sacrum and hip during pregnancy
4.disuse - results in:
-Accumulation of synovial fluid
-Muscles atrophy

22

gliding movements

simple back-and-forth and side-to-side movements.
-Limited in range of motion
-No significant alteration in angle between the bones
-At planner joints (intercarpal joins)

23

angular movements

Increase or decrease the angle between bones

24

name and describe the 6 types of angular movements

1.Flexion- decrease in angle
2.Extension- increase in angle
3.Hyperextension - move beyond anatomical position
4.Abduction - movement away from midline
5. Adduction - movement towards the midline
6. Circumduction - moving in a circle

25

rotation

one bone moving around its own longitudinal axis
Ex) shaking your head “no”
Anterior surface of the bone moves towards midline of the body
-Medial rotation
-Lateral rotation

26

name and describe the 2 types of rotational movement

1.Supination - movement of the forearm so the palm is upward (hold the soup)

2.Pronation movement of the forearm so the palm is turned downward (poor the soup)

27

describe elevation and depression. what types of movements are these?

special movements
1.Elevation - upward movement
ex) Close mouth
2.Depression - downward movement
ex)Open mouth

28

describe protraction and retraction. what types of movements are these?

special movements
3. Protraction - movement anteriorly
4. retraction - movement posteriorly

29

describe inversion and eversion. what types of movements are these?

special movements
5. inversion - movement of the sole of the foot medially
6. eversion - movement of the sole of the foot laterally

30

describe dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. what types of movements are these?

special movements
7. Dorsiflexion - bending the foot at the ankle in an upward direction (toward the dorsum)

8.Plantar flexion - pointing the toes; foot at an angle in a downward direction (towards plantar surface)

31

describe opposition. what types of movement is this?

special movement
9. Opposition - movement of the thumb across the palm to touch other fingers

32

in a lever, what is a joints role?

fulcrum

33

define effort

muscular contraction

34

define resistance

weight of the body part opposes movement

35

when does movement occur?

effort exceeds load

36

mechanical advantages occur when....

load is closer to the fulcrum, and the effort is further away, only need small amount of effort

37

1st class lever

fulcrum is between the effort and the resistance (load)
-Few in the body
ex) Atlanto-occipital joint in the neck

38

2nd class lever

resistance is between the fulcrum and the effort
-Always producing a mechanical advantage

39

3rd class levers

effort is between the fulcrum and the load.
**mechanical disadvantage
-Get more movement out of this arrangement
-most common in body

40

define arthritis

swollen, stiff, painful joits

41

osteoarthritis

-joint cartilage is lost through “wear and tear”
-Associated with aging, avoid it through exercising

42

Rheumatoid

autoimmune disease – body is breaking down cartilage in the joint linnings

43

Gouty

-Uric acid buildup (byproduct of protein degeneration) or accumulation in joints.
-Hard to move joints because there is other “stuff” in the way

44

ankylosing spondylitis

-inflammation affects joints in the vertebrae
-More common in men

45

arthroplasty

-the surgical implantation of an artificial joint. The most commonly replaced are the hips, knees, and shoulders