Chapter 4 - biology of the cell Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - biology of the cell Deck (14):
1

Eukaryotic cells are composed of what 3 parts?

1. Cytoplasm - a gelatin-like substance, plus structural fibers and organelles

2. Nucleus - contains the genetic library of the cell 3. Plasma membrane

3. Plasma Membrane

2

what does the cytoplasm contain?

-contains all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.

-cytosol (fluid portion) composed of mostly water -organelles are embedded in cytosol

3

What is the cytoskeleton composed of?

-made up of dense fibres (organelles attached)

1)Microfilaments - actin (makes up muscles)

2)Intermediate filaments - structure

3)Microtubules - Cilia and flagella

4

what are cilia

short, hair like projections from the cell surface -used to move fluids along the surface

5

what are flagella

-longer projections that are capable of moving an entire cell Ex) tail of sperm cell

6

what is the function of ribosomes?

make proteins

7

what is the function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum, and what does it contain?

-Connection to nuclear envelope 1)Rough ER (have ribosomes) -Produces protein 2)Smooth ER (no ribosomes) -Synthesize fatty acids and steroids

8

what is the function of the Golgi Complex?

membranous sacs Pack proteins for transport

9

What is the function of the Mitochondria?

the “powerhouses” of the cell Generates ATP

10

What is the function of Lysosomes?

contain digestive enzymes

11

What is the function of Peroxisomes?

detoxify toxic substances (alcohol)

12

What is the function of Proteasomes?

break down proteins

13

What is the purpose of the nucleus?

contains DNA in molecules called chromosomes

14

what is gene expression?

the process of:

1) Transcription: In nucleus, DNA --> pre-mRNA --> mRNA (exits nucleus)

2) Translation (convert mRNA to Protein)

In cytosol mRNA is read, tRNA adds amino acids to form a protein