Chapter 6 - Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Integumentary System Deck (42):

the Integumentary System is composed of what 4 main parts?

- Skin and accessory organs including blood vessels, muscles and nerves
- Hair
- Nails
- Glands


What are the main functions of the integumentary system? (6)

- protection against UV rays, environment, bacteria, and water loss
- absorption
- regulation
- Vitamin D synthesis
- Sensory
- Emotional Expression


name and briefly explain the 3 main layers of the skin.

1) epidermis -> outside layer of epithelial tissue
2) dermis -> composed of CT. functions in them regulation and insulation
3) Subcutaneous -> highly vascularized


what is the epidermis composed of?

-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
- keratinocytes -> produce keratin (fibrous protein) that provides protection
- melanocytes -> produce melonin (pigment) which protects against UV


what is a Nevi?

overgrowth of melanocytes that produces a birthmark or mole


Cancer of Melanocytes is known as what?

Malignant Melanoma


What are tactile or Merkel cells and where are they found?

touch receptor cells that receive signals and send to nerve.
located in the stratum basal


Name the 5 layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial

1) stratum basale
2)stratum spinosum
3)stratum granulosum
4)stratum lucidum
5) stratum corneum


explain the processes that occur in the stratum basale

-continuous cell division that produces all other layers of epidermal tissue


what is the structure of the stratum spinosum

8-10 layers of keratinocytes (can still divide)


what are the characteristics of the stratum granulosum

layer of cells which can no longer divide, filled with keratin.


what is the significants of the stratum lucid. what is its function

only present in thick skin (fingertips, palms, soles of feet)
functions in increased protection


which layer of the epidermal is the most superficial? What are the characteristics of this layer?

Stratum Corneum
composed of ~20 layers of cell remnants.
dead cells have no nucleus and are filled with keratin
cells are continuously shed and replaced by cells from deeper strata


The Dermis lies ________ to the Epidermis, and ________ to the Sub Q.

deep; superficial


What are the 2 main regions of the dermis

papillary region and reticular region


The epidermis is vascular. True or False

False. Epidermal tissue is Avascular and receives all nutrients from underlying tissues.


List the Characteristics of the Papillary Region of the Dermis

-areolar CT that contains capillaries, tactile receptors, free nerve endings
-provides nutrients to the epidermis


What dermal layer provides nutrients to the epidermis?

papillary region


what are the characteristics of the reticular region of the dermis?

- dense irregular CT containing adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves and glands.
- cells are replaced but not shed in this layer


Hair follicles, nerves and glands are located in which layer of the skin?

reticular region of the Dermis


name and describe the types of nerves found in the Dermis

sensory nerve fibers - detect pressure, vibration, and cold
motor nerve fibers - control blood vessels (body temp regulation) and gland secretion


what are the characteristics of the Subcutaneous layer

attaches the skin to underlying tissues an organs, energy reserve, thermal regulation
vascular network


Hair is also known as



Characteristics of the hair include

structure - dead, keratinized, epidermal cells
function - UV protection, heat regulation, sensation, protection against foreign particles (eye lashes)


The 3 main components of the hair are..

1) shaft - above the skin surface
2) root - deep to the skin
3) bulb - epithelial cells where the hair originates


how are hair and nails similar?

both composed of dead, keratinized, epidermal cells


characteristics of the nail

structure -hard dead, keratinized, epidermal cells
location - on the dorsal surfaces if the fingers and toes
function - protects distal tips of digits, assists with grasping


what are the 3 types of glands located in the Dermis

1) sebaceous
2) merocrine
3) apocrine


sebaceous glands secrete ...

oily substances (sebum) which prevents dehydration of hair and skin


what type of dermal gland is connected to the hair follicles? how are these stimulated?

stimulated by a hormone called androgens


A watery odourless solution is secreted from which dermal gland? what is the purpose?

Merocrin sweat glands.
thermal regulation (cools) and eliminates small amounts of waste
(sweating due to exercise)


This type of gland is located in the axilla, groin, and areolae.

Apocrine sweat gland


when are Apocrine sweat glands activated?

sexual activities
emotional sweating
Smells bad - lipid rich


Define Regeneration

replacement of damaged cells with cells of the same type


Define fibrosis

replacement of damaged cells with scar tissue (fibrosis CT)


What are the 4 stages of wound healing?

1) Blood vessels bleed into wound
2) clot forms
3) damaged blood vessels regrow, wound becomes granulation tissue
4) epithelium regeneration - CT is replaced by fibrosis


What is a granulation tissue?

during the stages of wound healing, blood vessels regrow and the wound becomes granulation tissue which is highly vascularized CT


what are the characteristics of a First Degree Burn?

involves only the epidermis
-characterized by mild pain and redness (no blisters)


How does a second degree burn differ from a first degree burn?

a second degree burn destroys the epidermis and part of the dermis.
some functions are lost
characterized by redness, blisters, edema, and pain

a first degree burn involves only the epidermis and no functions are lost


A burn that destroys the epidermis, dermis, and sub Q layers of the skin is known as? what is the result of this type of burn?

third degree burn
results in loss of skin function, region is numb


Vit D metaboilization



What is the effect of aging on the integumentary system?

- fibroblasts reduce in number and produce less collagen fibres resulting in wrinkles
-sebatious glands slow down causing dehydration and cracking
-sweat production increases
-melanocytes decrease in production (pigment loss = grey hair)
- Adipose tissue layer in sub Q increases but skin thickness decreases
-nails become brittle
-cell migration slows down delaying cell repair
-increased likelihood of acquiring pathological diseases (pressure ulcers)