Chapter 5 - Tissue Organization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Tissue Organization Deck (40):

define Tissues

group of cells with a common embryonic origin that function together to carry out specialized activities


define intracellular junctions

mechanically connect adjacent cells


Name and describe the three types of intracellular junctions

1) tight junctions - leak prof seals between cells. transmembrane protein strands located within adjacent PM.
found in bladder, and digestive system.
2) gap junctions - pores called connexions allow ions to pass btw adjacent cells
important for passing electrical systems quickly btw cells in heart
3) anchoring junctions - provide strength
-desmosomes -> plaque, glycoprotein (cadherin), keratin
-adherens -> plaque, glycoprotein (cadherin), actin
-hemidesmosome -> integrins, basla lamina


Characteristics of Epithelial cells

forms outside layer of skin, tightly packed cells, avascular


functions of epithelium

lines surfaces, protection, secretion of hormones and mucous, sensation, absorption.


components of the epithelium

free apical surface and attached basal surface


3 shapes and arrangements of epithelial tissue

Shape - squamous, cuboidal, columnar
Arrangment - simple, pseudo-stratified, stratified


Simple Squamous Epithelium - Structure, Function, and Location

structure - single layer of flat cells
function - filtration and diffusion
location - air sacs in lungs, lining of blood vessels, capillaries, lymphatic vessels


Simple Columnar Epithelium - Structure, Function and Location

structure - single layer of columnar cells w/ no cilia on microvilli
function - secretion and absorption
location - singing of GI track


Simple Cuboidal Epithelium - Structure, Function and Location

structure - single layer of cuboidal cells
function - secretion and absorption
location - follicles of thyroid gland and covers the ovaries


Ciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium - Structure, Function and Location

structure - single layer of columnar cells w/ cilia on microvilli
function - movement of mucous and foreign particles
location - lines bronchioles and fallopian tubes


Pseudo-stratified Columnar Epithelium - Structure, Function and Location

structure - single layer of columnar cells with varying nucleus levels
function - protection
location - air passages of respiratory system: mucin is secreted and turns into mucous that catches foreign particles


Stratified Squamous Epithelium - Structure, Function and Location

structure - multiple layers of thin cells
function - protection against friction and UV
location - skin, tongue, mouth, esophagus, vagina, cervix


Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium - Structure, Function and Location

structure - multiple layers of cuboidal cells
function - thick layer for protection. forms tubes and coverings
location - walls of exocrine ducts (sweat glands), lining of male urethra, ovarian follicles


Stratified Columnar Epithelium - Structure, Function and Location

structure - basal layers are irregular shaped, apical layer contains columnar cells
function - protection and secretion
location -large ducts of salivary glands and male urethra


Transitional Epithelium

structure - variable appearance depending on stretch
function - stretch to hold variable amounts of liquid
location - urinary bladder


name describe the 2 types of epithelial glands

1) endocrine glands - secrete contents directly into blood
2) exocrine glands - secretes into lumen or duct and then empties onto surfaces


Connective tissue functions

binds tissues together, support and strengthen, protect and insulate internal organs, energy reserves.


characteristics of connective tissue

vascular, contains nerves ( except cartilage and tendons)
loosely packed cells
Extracellular matrix - contains protein fibers and ground substance


Cells of connective tissue (5)

1) Fibroblasts - numerous, secrete protein fibers
2) Chondrocytes - in cartilaginous CT
3) Adipocytes - store fat
4) Osteocytes - bone cells
5) White blood cells - blood


Connective Tissue Fibers (3)

1) Collagen - strong, resist pulling
2) Elastin - strong, can stretch and rebound
3) Reticular - supportive, forms scaffolding - like structure, stiff


Embryonic Connective Tissue (2)

2) Mucous CT


Mature Connective Tissue (5)

1) Loose CT
2) Dense CT
4) Bone
5) Liquid


What are the 3 types of loose CT?

1) Areolar
2) Adipose
3) Reticular


Describe Loose Areolar CT

most numerous
structure - highly vascular, thick substance
function - strength, protection, support
location - attaches skin to underlying tissues, packing between muscles and nerves


Describe Loose Adipose CT

structure - closely paced adipocytes
function - reduce heat loss, padding, energy source
location - sub Q layer, surrounds organs


Describe Loose Reticular CT

structure - houses leukocytes and fibroblasts within reticular fibre framework
function - structural framework of lymphatic organs
location- spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow


Name the 3 types of Dense Connective Tissues

1) Dense Irregular CT
2) Dense Regular CT
3) Elastic CT


describe dense irregular CT

structure - randomly arranged fibroblasts and collagen fibres
function - provides strength from forces pulling in multiple directions
location - fascia, periostio, dermis


describe dense regular CT

structure - parallel arrangements of collagen fibres and fibroblasts
function - strength in one direction
location - tendons (bone -muscle) and ligaments (bone - bone)


describe elastic CT

structure - fibroblasts among densely packed elastic fibres
function - stretch and recoil. provides resistance
location - large arteries, trachea, vocal cords


What are the characteristics of Cartilage?

firm, extracellular matrix which contains collagen and elastic protein fibres


name the types of cartilage (3)

1) hyaline
2) fibrocartilage
3) elastic


characteristics of hyaline cartilage

**most common
structure - irregularly placed chondrocytes surrounded by perichondrium
function - provides support
location - end of long bones,parts of ribs, nose, trachea, fetal skeleton


characteristics of fibrocartilage

structure - coarse irregularly arranged protein finer bundles btw large chondrocytes. Has minimal ground substance
function - weight bearing, resists compression
location - intervertebral disks, menisca


characteristics of elastic cartilage

structure - densely packed chondrocytes surrounded by small amounts of ECM containing elastic fibres. Contains perichondrium and a semi-solid ground substance
function - resistance and flexibility
location - external ear, epiglottis


What are the characteristics of bone

contains a calcified intracellular matrix


describe liquid connective tissue

consists of blood and lymph (atypical liquid CT)


define epithelial membranes

simplest organs in the body made up of epithelium and a small amount go CT


name and briefly describe the 4 epithelial membranes

1) Mucous -> located on external surfaces of body (digestive tract)
2) Serous -> located on internal surfaces, lines body cavities (lungs)
3) Cutaneous -> external surfaces (skin)
4) synovial -> encloses joints