Chapter 13 - Brain and Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Brain and Cranial Nerves Deck (34):
1

what are the brain's protective coverings?

1) Cranial Meninges
-continuous with spinal meninges
2)dura mater
-tough outer layer
3) arachnoid mater
(spidery)
4)pia mater
(thin)

2

where is cerebral spinal fluid located?

circulates through the internal cavities in the brain (subarachnoid spaces) and central canal of spinal cord

3

what are the 3 functions of cerebral spinal fluid?

1) Mechanical protection: shock absorber
2) Homeostatic function: maintain pH
3) Circulation: transport of nutrients & wastes

4

Hydocephalus

disorder that is characterized by a build up of pressure from the failure of CSF to form and drain normally.
-occurs with congenital abnormalities, head injury, meningitis, and episodes of bleeding into the brain.

5

what forms the blood brain barrier (BBB)?

The vascular endothelium around brain capillaries forms tight junctions with the nearby astrocytes - making the BBB

6

what is the function of the blood brain barrier?

-serves to isolate the brain from many substances in the blood including bacteria.

7

what are some downfalls to the blood brain barrier?

-Molecules (such as glucose) must be actively transported across the barrier
-If a brain infection were to develop, antibiotics have difficulty crossing into the brain

8

name the 4 main components of the brain?

-brain stem
-cerebellum
-diencephalon
-cerebrum

9

what are the components of the brain stem

-Medulla oblongata
-Pons
-Midbrain

10

what are the components of the diencephalon

-thalamus
-hypothalamus

11

what are the components of the cerebrum?

Parietal lobes
Temporal lobes
Occipital lobe
frontal lobe

12

what is the role of the medulla oblongata?

1) cardiovascular center
-controles heart rate and diameter of vessels
2)respiratory rhythmicity centre
-control the rate and rhythm of breathing
3)vomiting, coughing, and sneezing centres

13

what is the role of the Pons

-controls breathing
-relay center for motor control

14

what is the role of the midbrain?

-visual reflexes
-auditory pathway

15

what is the role of the cerebellum?

compares intended movements with what is happening with skeletal muscles, regulates posture, equilibrium, and balance

16

damage to the cerebellum is known as...

ataxia

17

the thalamus is responsible for...

relay station for all sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex

18

what is the role of the hypothalamus?

1) Controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
2) coordinates between the nervous system and the endocrine system (induces hormones)
3) Controls body temp, regulates hunger/thirst, assists with the internal circadian clock.

19

what is the limbic system and what does it do?

- emotional brain
- role in pain, pleasure, docility, affection, anger, and memory

20

what is the cerebral cortex?

The “seat of our intelligence”
-Sensory areas
-Motor areas
-Association areas: memory, personality, intelligence

21

what is the Hemispheric Lateralization?

Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex specializes in performing certain unique functions
Left= reasoning, numerical, scientific
Right= music, artistic, awareness, language

22

define and explain Neural plasticity.

capacity of the nervous system to be remodelled
-Connections at the synapses can be strengthened or weakened over time depending on use

23

Cranial Nerve I
name, type. function

-Olfactory
-sensory
-Smell

24

Cranial Nerve II
name, type. function

-Optic
-sensory
Vision

25

Cranial Nerve III
name, type. function

-Oculormotor
-motor
-Movement of eyeballs, constriction of pupils

26

Cranial Nerve IV
name, type. function

-Trochlear
-motor
-movement of the eyeballs

27

Cranial Nerve V
name, type. function

-Trigeminal
-motor and sensory
-Sensory nerve of the face, motor control of chewing

28

Cranial Nerve VI
name, type. function

Abducens
-motor
-movement of eyeballs

29

Cranial Nerve VII
name, type. function

Facial
-motor and sensory
-Sensory nerve of taste, motor nerve of facial expression

30

Cranial Nerve VIII
name, type. function

Vestibulocochlear
-sensory
-hearing and equilibrium

31

Cranial Nerve IX
name, type. function

Glossopharyngeal
-sensory and motor
-Sensory for taste, monitors bood pressure, motor for swallowing and saliva production

32

Cranial Nerve X
name, type. function

Vagus
-sensory and motor
-Sensory from parasympathetic NS, motor for swallowing, vocalization

33

Cranial Nerve XI
name, type. function

Accessory
-motor
-Movment of head and pectoral girdle

34

Cranial Nerve XII
name, type. function

Hypoglossal
-motor
-Speech, manipulation of food