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1

Cost of BI to society ($)

$76.5 Billion (cost of care and lost productivity)

2

3 reason a person is at risk for developing significant disability

1. awareness and understanding about brain injury remains fairly limited
2. BI is frequently not identified
3. treatment is not always readily available

3

acquired brain injury

injury to the brain that is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma

4

traumatic brain injury

alteration of brain function or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.

5

2 primary methods mechanisms of TBI

1. impact to the head
2. inertial forces which affect the brain

6

2 types of traumatic impact injuries

1. open (penetrating)
2. closed (non-penetrating)

7

Closed injury

can cause brain lacerations and contusion, or ICH

8

Inertial forces

non-contact/impact forces; acceleration-deceleration forces where brain is rapidly accelerated within the skull followed by rapid deceleration

results in coup-contracoup injury

9

phase 1 of secondary brain injury

impaired blood flow
tissue damage
metabolic imbalance
membrane permeability

10

phase 2 of secondary brain injury

axon terminal depolarization
intracellular breakdown
apoptosis
release of exitatory neurotransmitters
free radical generation
necrosis

11

leading cause of traumatic brain injury

falls

12

how many people sustained a TBI in 2010

2.5 million

13

percentage of TBIs each year that are mTIBs/concussions

75%

14

Percentage of brain injuries each year that result in death

2% (53,000)

15

Percentage of brain injuries each year that result in hospitalization

11% (284,000)

16

Percentage of brain injuries each year that result in ED visits

87% (2,214,000)

17

risk factors and indicators for how a BI may affect one's life

injury severity
age at injury
alcohol misuse
domestic violence
service in military
participation in sports

18

risk for second brain injury after first

3 times greater

19

risk for 3rd brain injury after 2nd

8 times greater

20

age groups in which falls cause most TBIs

0-4 years
75+ years

21

leading cause of TBI-related death

MVC

22

age group in which MVCs cause highest rate of TBI

20-24 years

23

highest rate of TBI causes for age 0-14

Fall (50.2%)
Struck by or against (24.8%)
MVC (6.8%)

24

highest rate of TBI causes for age 65+

Fall (60.7%)
Unknown (24.7%)
Struck by or against (5.7%)
MVC (7.9%)

25

concussion

-trauma-induced alteration in mental status
-may or may not involve LOC
-can result in memory loss for events immediately before or after trauma
-can result in local neurological deficits that may or may not be transient
-may demonstrate vomiting, lethargy, dizziness, and inability to recall what just happened

26

percentage of sports-related mTBIs that result in LOC

8.9%

27

age groups most likely to sustain TBI

15-19 years
20-24 years
65+ years

28

age group with highest incidence of TBI-related hospitalization and death

75+ years

29

annual percentage of TBIs that occur in children age 0-14

30%

30

non-accidental trauma causes at least ___% of deaths from head trauma in children under 2 years old

80%