Chapters 16, 17, 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 16, 17, 20 Deck (57)
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Age range most devastating for BI to occur

birth - 5 y/o


5 peak maturation periods in normally developing children (ages/ranges)

3-5 years
8-10 years
14-15 years
17-19 years
21-22 years


3-5 year old brain maturation

all regions of the brain show synchronous development until about age 6
perfecting skills such as forming images, using words, serial ordering things, and problem solving


8-10 year old brain maturation

-motor system maturation
-frontal executive system begins accelerated development
-elaboration of the visuospatial functional and visuo-auditory regions


14-15 year old brain maturation

visuospatial, visuo-auditory, and somatic systems reach their maturational peak
-enter stage of dialectical ability
-able to review formal operations, find flaws with them, and form new ones


17-19 year old brain maturation

big increase in regions governing frontal executive functions
development continues through the mid-twenties when mylenation of the frontal cortex is completed


If damage occurs right before one of these normally occurring neuronal growth spurts, the child or adolescent may lose...

the opportunity for normal development of skills at that time and may not develop the same ways or at the same pace as their same-age peers


prognosis for acquiring new skills is (better/worse) the younger the child is at the time of brain injury



referral rates for special education for children age 0-19 who acquire BI

less than 2%


scatter skills

extreme discrepancies among abilities, they can do some things really well and with others they have great difficulty


504 accommodation plan

written plan developed by a general education school committee outlining accommodations to be made by K-12 or post-secondary school that receives federal funds for a student with a disabling condition that substantially limits a major life activity
-preferential seating
-extended time on assignments or tests
-tests in an alternative setting
-word banks for tests or quizzes
-rest breaks
-shortened assignments
-visual aids/cue cards
-books on CD
-text to speech software



a federal education mandate requiring public schools to provide a free appropriate public education through the use of special education supports and services to children with eligible disabilities
-Child Find


Child Find

requires schools to locate, identify, and evaluate all students from birth to age 21 whom they suspect might have a disability



Individual Education Plan
-legal written plan or program developed by the school's special education team with input from parents specifying the student's academic goals based upon assessment and the method to obtain these goals via specially designed instruction and related services



Individual transition plan
-a coordinated set of activities for special education students that promotes successful movement from school to post-school activities as mandated under the IDEA by age 16 (14 in some states) and is part of the IEP document. Addresses life after high school


Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS)

TBI due to shaking only


Abusive Heat Trauma (AHT)

TBI resulting from a non-accidental injury involving violence against an individual.
-broad term that includes shaken baby syndrome as well as any type of blunt force to the head or combination of the two (shaken impact syndrome)


___% of shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma survivors were less than 1 year old



What percentage of fatal shaken baby syndrome incidents were male children

58% boys
(42% girls)


Male caregivers comprised ___% of individuals responsible for shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma



Perpetrators of shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma (percentage breakdown)

56% bio father
16% boyfriend of mother
15% bio mother
5% babysitter
9% other


Injury severity rates for children (percent breakdown for mild, moderate, and severe BI)

80% mild
10% moderate
10% severe


family dysfunction is reported anywhere from ___% of families after BI, depending upon population



most frequently reported post-injury challenges to optimal family functioning include

-communication difficulties
-changes in mood and emotional healthof family members and the person with BI
-unequal sharing of household responsibilities among family members
-lack of access to resources or services which could help to combat BI-related complications


___% of caregivers of individuals with TBI report significant CG burden



Family Systems Theory

grounded in the notion that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
-encourages practitioners to think about the interactions which occur between different family members' thoughts, statements, beliefs, and actions as the primary guiding forces that influence the individual as well as family decision making and behavior
-takes positive view of families, assuming that every family has the strength and capacity to solve problems and make positive changes


Family Centered services

families are considered the most important influence on the child's development, recovery, and overall adjustment
-mutual respect, information sharing, participation, and collaborative partnerships with persons with BI and their families
-interventions must be tailored to the person with the injury and their family's strengths, needs, priorities, and values
-resilience theory


resilience theory

based on the notion that, no matter how catastrophic the event, there are always individuals and families who rise above the expected negative outcomes, or, there are people who beat the odds


Families who demonstrate resilient skill sets exhibit the following:

-belief systems defined by making meaning out of adversity, maintaining a positive outlook, and having an inherent spirituality
-family organization which includes the capacity to change, an integral and supportive connection between family members, and the willingness to use social resources
-communication strategies which are clear, emotionally open, and take a collaborative approach to problem solving


active listening (technique for working with families after BI)

understanding their struggles before providing advice