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Flashcards in Chapter 2 & 3 Deck (71)
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1

How much does an adult brain weigh?

3 lbs

2

blood-brain barrier

ensures that at vascular level, harmful substances cannot pass through membrane to harm brain

3

Meninges

3 membranes or layers that act as a protective, vascular web

4

3 layers of meninges

dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater

5

dura mater

"hard matter" like a heavy plastic covering

6

arachnoid mater

spider web-like layer that bridges the brain's wrinkles and folds

7

pia mater

molds around every tiny crook and crevice on the brain's surface

8

brainstem made up of

midbrain
pons
medulla

9

brainstem purpose

relays info into and out of the brain
central point for all incoming and outgoing info and basic life functions

10

medulla function

vital life functions
-breathing
-heart rate
-blood pressure
-swallowing
-vomiting
-sneezing

11

pons function

-facial movements & sensations
-hearing
-coordinating eye movements
-serves as bridge of nerve fibers connecting the cerebral cortex and cerebellum- can impact coordination and control of body movements

12

midbrain function

-seeing and hearing
-alertness and arousal

13

diencephalon made up of

thalamus
hypothalamus

14

diencephalon location

above midbrain

15

thalamus function

relay station for incoming and outgoing sensory info (except smell)

16

injury to thalamus can cause

-severe attention and concentraion issues
-memory and storage retrieval issues
-weakened mental stamina
-decreased sensory info
-decreased reactions to stress/emotional responses
-disorders in eating/drinking/sleeping/sexual functioning

17

hypothalamus function

control center for
-hunger
-thirst
-sexual response
-endocrine levels
-temperature regulation
-fight or flight reactions
-anger
-fatigue
-memory
-calmness
-emotional regulation
-connected to pituitary gland (release of hormones)

18

Limbic system made up of

hippocampus
basal ganglia
amygdala

19

Limbic system location

middle section of brain, sits on top of brainstem

20

Limbic system function

"mammalian brain"
contains elemental drives, emotions, and survival instincts

21

Damage to limbic system can cause

-uncontrollable /dysregulated emotions
-under/over reacting
-impulsivity

22

amygdala and hippocampus directly tied to what other system?

olfactory

23

3 parts of limbic system

hippocampus
amygdala
basal ganglia

24

hippocampus function

memory
facilitates encoding and storage of info in systematic manner that is typically associative

25

damage to hippocampus can cause

info not being processed in an organized manner
-difficulties with accurate storage and retrieval of info

26

amygdala function

-closely tied to emotional memories & reactions
-aggressive responses
-fight or flight response
-fears
-smell/taste memories

27

basal ganglia function

-handle physical movement
-relays info from cerebral cortex to brainstem and cerebellum
-on alert for when something is not working the way it should be
-responds to LOB

28

damage to basal ganglia can cause

-Parkinson's symptoms
-slowness and loss of movement (akinesia)
-muscular rigidity
-tremor

29

cerebellum function

coordinates, modulates, and stores all body movement
-monitors impulses from motor and sensory centers (brainstem, basal ganglia, sensorimotor cortex) to help control direction, rate, force, and steadiness of a person's movements
-proprioception
-eye hand coordination
-posture
-muscle tone

30

damage to cerebellum can cause impairments in

-coordination
-fine motor movements
-trajectory of movement
-balance
-proprioception