Chapter 1- Basic Chemisrty & Cell Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1- Basic Chemisrty & Cell Respiration Deck (77)
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1

What are molecules ?

- when two or more atoms share electrons to form a stable
structure
- the association of molecules with one another is what makes up a
cell

2

What makes up the cell ?

the association of molecules with one another is what makes up a cell

3

Molecules can be compound or element ? True /False

True

4

what is the substance, molecule, that is made of different atoms ?

compound , not all molecules are compound

5

A substance that is made of the same atoms ?

Element- e.g.O2
- 4 elements; oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon make
96% of body mass

6

An atom that has (-) or (+) charge because it has unequal number of protons and electrons?

Ion

7

An electrically charged atom (or group of atoms) with unpaired electron ?

Free radical

8

Part of the level structure is the atoms; define it and list its properties ?

- ultramicroscopic building blocks of matter
- contain a nucleus (protons and neutrons) and surrounding
with electrons
- the number of protons and electrons are equal
- the smallest part of a molecule means the undividable in greek

9

What is a chemical reaction ?

- it is a release of energy, when breaking a bond, this energy
can be used to form other bonds
- occurs when these bonds are formed or broken
- an energy that is stored on the bond between atoms
and molecules

10

Chemical reaction changes the characteristics of those atoms or molecules ? True or False

True

11

It is the balance between anabolic and catabolic and the sum of all chemical reactions in the body ?

Metabolism

12

It is the buidling phase of metabolism, simple molecules are combined to make more complex ones and it is a net consumption of energy ? and give an example

Anabolism
- e.g H2O, CH4 , C6H12O2(glucose)
- glucose to glycogen

13

It is the breaking down phase of Metabolism, complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones, it is the net production of energy?

It is Catabolism

14

What is the energy currency of the body ?

ATP

15

It provides a form of energy that is used by the cell?

ATP

16

ATP how is it earned and spent ?

ATP energy is earned through Catabolic reactions and
spent through Anabolic reactions

17

How does the energy used from splitting the ATP ?

It is used in many functions
1. cell division
2. muscle contraction
3. movement of some substances across cell membrane
4. making large molecules out of smaller ones

18

What does it meant breaking the ATP ? write the equation ?

- Breaking the ATP = Release of energy
- Energy is RealEstate in order to perform various functions
- The equation is -
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) + H2O --->
ADP(Adenosine Diphosphate) + P (phosphate group) + E (energy)
- Energy(40% cell functions, 60% heat to help with body Temp)

19

What is Reforming Energy pertaining to ?

Reforming Energy = Energy used
- to reform ATP (attach P to ADP) requires energy

20

How does the cells get the energy to reform ATP?

-cells get energy to reform ATP primarily from;
carbohydrate, fats and proteins

21

What is the name of substances that make energy (reform ATP) called?

Substances are collectively called;
energy substrates (carbs, fats and proteins)

22

Depending on the cell, 1. the demand for energy, and the
2. energy substrate available,
different substrate are used?
T/F

True

23

What is the equation for Forming ATP?

ADP(Adenosine Diphosphate) + P(Phosphate group) + Energy ------>(ATP Synthase/buidling)
ATP(Adenosine triphosphate) + H2O (water)

24

A series of reactions that transfer energy from food to ATP is called ?

- cell respiration

25

What kind of process the cell respirations takes?

1. Anaerobic
2. Aerobic

26

Cellular respirations happens without oxygen?

Anaerobic

27

Cellular respirations happens with oxygen?

aerobic

28

What are the 3 kinds of metabolism for cell respirations ?

1. Carbohydrate (Glucose metabolism)
2. Fat metabolism
3. Protein Metabolism

29

Fat can only be used to generate ATP only with presence of -------?

Oxygen - aerobically

30

What is Lipolysis?

It is the breakdown of stored fat (into glycol and fatty acids which can be used to make ATP)