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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Tissues Deck (93)
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What does the the Epithelial tissues offer ?

It offers
1. Functions
2. Locations
3. Structures
4. Blood Supply
5. Basement membrane


What is the classifications of Epithelial tissue?

1. Layering
2. Shaping


What are the two glandular epithelium?

1. Exocrine
2. Endocrine


how does the endocrine works ?

1. Secrete products into the interstitial fluid and diffuse directly
into the blood stream without flow through a duct.
- e.g pituitary glands, thyroid, adrenals.


How does the exocrine glands works?

- secrete their products into ducts(tubes) that empty
onto the epithelial surface e.g sweat(stratified cuboidal
tissue) , salivary glands, intestinal


What kind of layering does the epithelial tissues has?

1. Simple - one layer for the passage of substances
- involves in (Osmosis, filtration, Absorption, Diffusion
and Secretion)
- e.g simply squamous epithelial tissue (O2 of the lungs
and blood )
- lining of the heart and the blood vessels

2. pseudo-stratified- a single layer but not all the cells reach the free
surface , some have cilia, some will secrete mucous (goblet cells
are type of cell found in the respiratory and digestive tracts that
secret mucous)
3. Stratified - more than one layer ,
- good for protection-
e.g skin basement membrane ( the skin is stratified


list the shapes of the Epithelial tissue?

1.Squamous- flat and thin (narrow with a wide plate-like surface
- rapid movement of substances (simple)
- protection (stratified)-
e.g skin (stratified squamous)
2. Cuboidal - cube or hexagon shaped
- free surface may have Microvilli
- good for secretion or absorption
e.g sweat glands-stratified cuboidal
3. Columnar - taller than wide.
- free surface may have cilia or Microvilli.
- good for either absorption or secretion.


What is the Definition of tissue and how many kinds?

- Tissue is a group of similar cells that function together
(similar function) to perform specialized activities.
There are 4 major groups of tissues:
1. Epithelial - covers body surfaces, line organs,hollow lining, forms
glands, protect organs from acidity.
2. Connective - supporting and connecting
e.g bone, cartilage, blood and adipose tissue
3. Muscular - contract cells - moving muscles, limbs, heart from
one cell to another.
4. Nervous- make up of the nervous system..


What is simple squamous epithelium tissue particularly well suited for?

Simple squamous epithelium, due to their structure, are very useful in the process of ;
- transmembrane diffusion, allowing certain molecules to freely move
through the membrane of the cell,
- as well as lining cavities and the internal spaces of vessels.


give examples of simple squamous ? and its use?

1. The glomeruli of the kidneys
2. Lymph vessels
3. Lining the chambers of the heart

- Uses;
1. Transmembrane diffusion
2. lining spaces of vessels & the internal cavities


What does it mean if cells are simple?

There is only a single layer of cells.


Simple squamous epithelium includes ____ layer of _________ cells.

one layer of flattened


The four functions of epithelial tissues? (hint; PEAS),


what describes epithelial tissues?

1. It has no blood vessels (avascular)
2. It has a nerve supply (neural)


What are the four characteristics of epithelial tissue ?

1. covers the body surface
2. lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts
3. forms glands
4. composed of cells that are arranged in continuous sheets(single or
multiple layers) to cover all free surfaces


What is the function of the Epithelial tissue? (HINT:PSS)

1. selective barriers (skin)
2. secretory surfaces (mucous glands)
3. protective surfaces (skin)


What are the six locations of the epithelial tissue in the body?

1. skin
2. gastrointestinal tract
3. respiratory tract
4. urinary tract
5. lining of blood vessels and the heart
6. glands


What is the structure of the Epithelial tissue? (HINT; FLB)

1. free surface (aka apical(vertical on top))
2. lateral surfaces
3. basal surfaces


Does the Epithelial tissue has a blood supply?

1. epithelial tissue is avascular ( it has no blood supply)
2. epithelial tissue has a nerve supply


What are the characteristics of the basement membrane ?

1. a thin layer that anchors to the epithelial cells to the
underlying connective tissue
2. supports the epithelium
3. provides a surface for cell migration during growth or wound

e.g thickening of the basement membrane can affect the B/P, Vision &


What is the connective tissue made of ? and its properties?

1. made of extracellular matrix ( the material between the cells)
2. cells
- most CT has;
- blood supplies
- nerve supplies


Give examples of connective tissues?

1. tendons (muscle to bone) which are hypo-vascular
(less blood flow and less delivery of nutrients)
2. cartilage is neural and avascular
3. ligaments( bone to bone )


What is the 6 functions of the connective tissue?

1. protection
2. support/definition
3. binding
4. transportation
5. energy
6. immunity


What does the extracellular materials made of or contains?

It contains;
1. protein fibers (collagen ,elastin and reticular)
2. ground substance (more of a ground substance/fluid like gel)


What does the protein fibers made of ?

1. collagen - white
- very strong,
- resist pulling(tensile)forces
note- fibre arrangement is determined by the force
acting on the fibers.
2. elastin - yellow
- smaller than collagen
- strong but stretchy
3. reticular - thin
- fine collagen fibers that form branching network


What does the ground substance made of ?

1. maybe fluid- gel like or calcified
2. supports the cells and through it the substances are
exchanged between the blood and the cells.


There are 6 kinds of connective tissues , list them & identify them ?

1. blasts- each major type of cells with name ending in - blasts
- fibroblasts in loose and dense CT(reticular, elastin,
collagen and ground substance)
- osteoblasts in bone- Precusors for bone
- chondroblasts in cartilage
2. Fibroblasts (secreting fibers)
- present in all general CT
- produce protein fibers and the ground substance
3. Macrophages - eat bacteria and cellular debris
4. Plasma cells - part of the immune response (secrete antibodies_
e.g salivary glands, lymphoid, red bone marrow)
5.Mast Cells - make histamine (part of the inflammatory response)
dilate vessels
6. Adipose - cells that store fat.


What are the 5 types of connective tissues? (HINT: LLBCD)

1. Loose (Aerolase, adipose, reticular)
2. Dense (regular, irregular, elastic)
3. Bone
4. Cartilage (hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic)
5. Liquid (blood, Lymph)


What are the properties of the loose connective tissues and how many types does it has ?(HINT; AAR)

Properties- more cells and fewer fibers
- fiber are loosely intertwined

There are 3 types of of loose connective tissues;
1. areolar - most widely distributed CT in the body
(universal packing, glue)
- location - in and around everybody structure
(beneath the skin, around blood vessels, nerves
and body organs)
- function- strength, elasticity and support
2. Adipose - areolar tissue that contains a lot of adipose
- location - beneath the skin and around some organs
e.g ; kidney, liver, heart, behind eyeball
- function- thermoregulation, energy, support and
3. Reticular - locations- liver, spleen, lymph nodes, basement
membrane, around blood vessels and muscles.
- function - forms the supporting framework of organs
- binds smooth muscle cells
- filters and removes old blood cells and


How many type the dense CT has ? and what it's function and purpose ? (HINT RIE)

D.CT - more fibers (mostly collagen), fewer cells.
types ; 1. regular
2. irregular
3. elastic
1. Regular - collagen is arranged in parallel patterns
- locations; tendons(muscle to bone) and most
ligaments(bone to bone).
- function; - very strong and somewhat pliable structure
2. Irregular - collagen arranged in random/ irregular patterns
- locations - fascia , structure, support
- function - tensile (pulling strength in many directions)
3. elastic - high elastin content
- locations; lung tissue, arteries, ligaments between
- function; stretch and recoil