Chapter 2 - The Cell Flashcards Preview

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Identify the cell structure of the cell ?

1. Plasma Membrane
2. Fluids (Intercellular and Extracellular )
3. Membrane proteins
4. Microvilli
5. Cytoplasm
6. Cytoskeleton


what are the characteristics of the Plasma membrane/Cell Membrane ?

1. Flexible, sturdy barrier surrounding the cell contents.

2. Separate the cell from the external environment.

3. Contains membrane protein that ;
- identify the cell,
- strengthen the membrane
- move substances in/out the cell

4. Selectively permeable;
- allows some substances to pass through , in/out and not others.

5. Involved in communication;
between cells and between cells and their environment.


What is the intercellular fluid called and where is it found ? Is the content of the fluid regulated?

- It is called Cytosol
- It is found inside the cell
- Contents of the fluid is regulated


What is the Extracellular fluid? Where is located? and how many types of fluids are located?

1. Extracellular fluid is a fluid that is located outside the cell.
2. Contains lots of substances;
- cells extract what they need when they need it (O2 needed)
There are 3 kinds of Extracellular fluids:
1. Interstitial fluid (fluid between the cells)
2. Plasma ( fluid in the blood vessels)
3. Cerebrospinal (fluid that sourround the brains and spinal cord)


What is a bilayer lipid?

- It is a component of the cell membrane.
- It is composed of two layers of fatty acids organized in two
- The lipid bilayer is typically about five nanometers to ten nanometers
thick and surrounds all cells providing the cell membrane structure.


Define the Cell?

It is the smallest functional unit that can retain the necessary characteristics for life.


What is the membrane protein ?

- Proteins that are embedded within the membrane or attached
to one side of the membrane (inside or outside)

- It is associated with the lipid bilayer.


What are the functions of the membrane proteins ? (HINT: SSIR)

1. Selective channels that allow and/or move molecules from
one side of the membrane to the other.
2. Receptors that recognize specifics molecules.
3. Identify the cell e.g blood type
4. Strengthen, support, and connect adjacent cell


What is Microvilli? and what it is function ?

- Microvilli is a finger like projections of the plasma membrane
- Function; is to increase surface area ( no movement)
e.g, the intestine is lined with Microvilli to increase the amount of


What is Glycolysis?

- Glycolysis breaks down glucose and forms pyruvate with the
production of two molecules of ATP.
- The pyruvate end product of glycolysis can be used in either
- anaerobic respiration if no oxygen is available or
- in aerobic respiration via the TCA cycle which yields much more
usable energy for the cell.


What is the cytoplasm ? What its structure ? and Its function?

- It is the content of the cell (everything inside the plasma
membrane and outside the nucleus)
- Structure - 2 components
1. intercellular fluid/Cytosol (water, dissolved substances)
2. organelles
- Function ; e.g Glycolysis
1. cell metabolism
2. storage


Cytoskeleton provides structure for the cell, what is it made of an its function ?

- It is a network of protein filaments within the Cytosol.
- Function;
1. provides a structural framework for cell shape
2. scaffold for the organization/placement and movement of
cell contents(organelles)
3. force transmission
4. aids in cell movement


What are the organelles of the cell?

1. Nucleus (pl.nuclei)
2. Ribosomes
3. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
4. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
5. Golgi complex (apparatus, body)
6. Lysosome
7. Mitochondria (sing.Mitochondrium)
8. Cilia (sing. cilium)
9. Flagella (sing. flagellum)


Identify the name of the organelle of the cell that present in all human cells except RBCs , structure and function ?

Nucleus (pl.nuclei)

Structure ; 1. rounded and elongated
2. located near the Centre of the cell
1. control the Centre of the cell
2. Responsible for the cell metabolism
3. Growth
4. Reproduction
5. contains the genetic material DNA


What is the name of the organelle that is considered the site of the protein synthesis ?

Ribosomes - site of protein synthesis
- helps synthesis of the filament of the cytoskeleton


Name the organelle site of protein synthesis where Ribosomes are attached ?

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ; the sister of protein Synthesis where ribosomes are attached.


Name the organelle that ;
1. regulate calcium within the cell
2. regulates metabolism, and
3. makes lipid molecules ?

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (sER)
1. regulate calcium within the cell
2. regulates metabolism
3. makes lipid molecules


An organelle that is called the Packaging department, what is the name of the organelle and its function?

Golgi Complex (aka apparatus , body)
1. processes
2. sorts
2. packages
3. delivers molecules to the plasma membrane or around the cell


An organelle that break down substances that the cell has taken in or normal part of the cell that are damaged , name the organelle?

Lysosome breaks down substances that the cell has taken in or normal part of the cell that are damaged


What is the function of the mitochondria?

Mitochondria (sing. mitochondrium)
1. power plants of the cell
2. transfer organize compounds into energy (ATP) that is easily
accessible to the cell.


Identify the difference between Cilia and Microvilli?

Cilia(Saint. Cilium) e.g; respiratory tract
-short hair-like projection ,
- extending from the surface of the cell
- movement of the cilia causes a steady movement of fluid/particles
along the cell surface.

Microvilli: e.g; intestines is lined up with Microvilli
- to increase the amount of absorption.
-finger like projections of the plasma membrane
-no movement , they increase the surface area


An organelle that is similar to Cilia but longer and moves the cell ? available only in the sperm cell

Flagella (sing.flagellum)/ e.g. sperm cells
- structure; similar to cilia but longer
- function; move the cell


The role of proteins in the cell membrane is to _____.

-allow molecules to enter and exit the membrane


The role of peripheral membrane proteins?

1. Maintaining the cell shape and structure
2. Transportation to various locations in the cell
3. Cell signaling


Peripheral proteins _____.?

- attach to the plasma membrane but do not go through it


What peripheral membrane protein is most similar to snake venom?

phospholipase A2


Which peripheral membrane protein is involved in attaching the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton?

spectrin - is a cytoskeletal protein that lines the Intercellular
side of plasma membrane.


What is the role of the plasma membrane ?

It is to form a barrier and protect the cell from the environment.


What are the peripheral proteins ?

1. Peripheral proteins don't cross the membrane.
2. They hang out on either side of cell membranes.
3. They are loosely attached to other proteins or the membrane itself
through hydrogen bonds.
4. They're called 'peripheral proteins' because they sit on the outside
of the membrane and do not integrate into the membrane.


List the names of the Integral proteins membrane ? and its functions ?

1. Ion Channel - form a pore through which a specific ion can
flow to get across the membrane.
most membrane include specific channels for
several common ions.
2. Carrier - Transports a specific substance across membrane
by undergoing change in shape.
e.g. amino acids needed to synthesize new proteins, so it
enter the body cell via carriers.
Carrier proteins are also known as transporters.
3. Receptor - recognize specific ligand and alters cell's function in
some way.
e.g. antidiuretic hormone binds to receptors in the kidney
and changes the water permeability of certain
plasma membrane.
4. Enzyme (can be integral and Peripheral)-
Catalyzes reaction inside or outside the cell.
e.g lactase protruding from the epithelial cells lining your small
intestine splits the disaccharide lactose in the milk you drink.
5. Linker (Integral and Peripheral)-
- Anchors filaments inside and outside the plasma membrane.
- Provide structural stability and shape for the cell.
- Participate in movement of the cell
- Link 2 cells together.
6. Cell Identity marker (glycoprotein)
-distinguishes your cell from anyone else's.
MCH (Major Histocompatibility Proteins)