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Flashcards in chapter 1 - intro to biological psychology Deck (26):
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biological psychology

The branch of psychology in which the biological foundations of behaviour, emotions, and mental processes are studied

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Mind-body dualism

A philosophical perspective put forward by Rene Descartes in which the body is mechanistic, whereas the mind is separate and nonphysical

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Monism

(MON-nizm) A philosophical perspective characteristic of the neurosciences in which the mind is viewed as the product of activity in the brain and nervous system

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Phrenology

The pseudoscientific notion that the skull contours indicate personality and character traits

4

Histology

The study of cells and tissues on the microscopic level

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Microtome

A device used to make very thin slices of tissue for histology

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Golgi silver strain

A strain developed by Camillo Golgi used to observe single neurons

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Nissl strain

A stain used to view populations of cell bodies

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Myelin strain

A strain used to trace neural pathways

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Horseradish peroxidase

A strain used to trace axon pathways from their terminals to points of origin

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Autopsy

The examination of body tissues following death

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Computerized tomography (CT)

An imaging technology in which computers are used to enhance X-ray images

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Positron emission tomography (PET)

An imaging technique that provides information regarding the localization of brain activity

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

An imaging technique that provides very high resolution structural images

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Voxel

Short for "volume Pixel." A pixel is the smallest distinguishable square part of a two dimensional image. A voxel is the smallest distinguishable box shaped part of a three dimensional image

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Functional MRI (fMRI)

A technology using a series of MRI images taken 1 to 4 seconds apart in order to assess the activity of the brain

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Electroencephalogram (EEG)

A technology for studying the activity of the brain through recordings from electrodes placed on the scalp

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Evoked potential

An alteration in the EEG recording produced in response to the application of a particular stimulus

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Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

A technology for recording the magnetic output of the brain

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Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

A technique for stimulating the cortex at regular intervals by applying a magnetic pulse through a wire coil encased in plastic and placed on the scalp.

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Lesion

Pathological or traumatic damage to tissue

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Ablation

The surgical removal of tissue

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Microdialysis

A technique for assessing the chemical composition of a very small area of the brain

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Heritability

The amount of variability of a trait in a population that is due to genetics

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Knockout genes

Genes that take the place of normal genes but that fail to produce the specific protein produced by the normal genes

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Stem cell

An undifferentiated cell that can divide and differentiate into other types of cells