Chapter 3 - Cells Of The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Cells Of The Nervous System Deck (58):
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Action potential

The nerve impulse arising in a axon

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Neuron

A cell of the nervous system that is specialized for information processing and communication

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Glia

Cells in the nervous system that support the activities of neurons

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Organelle

A small structure within a cell that carries out a specific function

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Cell body / soma

The main mass of a neuron, containing the nucleus and many organelles

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Axon

The branch of a neuron usually responsible for carrying signals to other neurons

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Dendrite

The branch of a neuron that generally receives information from other neurons

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Intracellular fluid

The fluid inside a cell

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Extracellular Fluid

The fluid surrounding a cell

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Permeability

A property of a substance that determines the extent to which other substances pass through it

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Ion channel

A protein structure embedded in a cell membrane that allows ions to pass through it without the use of additional energy

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Ion pump

A protein structure embedded in a cell membrane that uses energy to move ions across the membrane

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Ion

A electrically charged particle in solution

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Voltage-dependent channel

An ion channel that opens or closes in response to the local electrical environment

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Ligand-gated channel

An ion channel in the neural membrane that responds to chemical messengers

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Sodium-potassium pump

An ion pump that uses energy to transfer three sodium ions to the Extracellular fluid for every two potassium ions retrieved from the Extracellular fluid

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Calcium pump

A protein structure embedded in the neural membrane that uses energy to move the calcium ions out of the cell

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Neurotransmitter

A chemical messenger that transfers information across s synapse

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Cytoskeleton

A network of filaments that provides the internal structure of a neuron

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Microtubule

The largest fiber in the cell cytoskeleton, responsible for the transport of neurotransmitters and other products to and from the cell body

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Anterograde transport

Movement of materials from the cell body of a neuron to the axon terminal along the Microtubules

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Retrograde transport

Movement of material from the axon terminal back to the cell body via the cells system of Microtubules

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Tau phosphorylation

Molecules of phosphate added to the tau protein lead to neurofibrillary tangles and structural collapse

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Neurofilament

A neural fiber found in the cell cytoskeleton that is responsible for structural support

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Microfilament

The smallest fiber found in the cell cytoskeleton that may participate in the changing of length and shape of axons and dendrites

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Nucleus

The substructure within a cell body that contains the cells DNA

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Nucleolus

A substructure within a cell Nucleus where ribosomes are produced

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Ribosome

An organelle in the cell body involved with protein synthesis

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Endoplasmic reticulum

An organelle in the cell body that participates in protein synthesis

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Golgi apparatus

An organelle in the cell body that packages proteins in vesicles

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Mitochondria

Organelles that provide energy to the cell by transforming pyruvic acid and oxygen into molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

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Synaptic gap

The tiny fluid filled space between neurons forming a synapse

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Dendritic spine

A knob on the dendrite that provides additional membrane area for the formation of synapses with other neurons

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Axon hillock

The cone-shaped segment of axon located at the junction of the axon and cell body that is specialized for the generation of axon potentials

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Myelin

The fatty insulating material covering some axons that boosts the speed and efficiency of electrical signaling

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Local circuit neuron

A neuron that communicates with neurons in its immediate vicinity

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Projection neuron

A neuron with a very long axon that communicates with neurons in distant areas of the nervous system

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Collateral

One of the branches near the end of the axon closest to its targets

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Axon terminal

The swelling at the tip of an axon collateral specialized for the release of neuro transmitter substances

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Synaptic vesicle

A small structure in the axon terminal that contains neurotransmitters

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Node of Ranvier

The uncovered section of axon membrane between two adjacent segments of myelin

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Unipolar neuron

A neuron with one branch that extends a short distance from the cell body then splits into two branches

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Bipolar neuron

A axon with two branches; one axon and one dendrite

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Multipolar neuron

A neuron that has multiple branches, usually one axon and numerous dendrites

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Sensory neuron

A specialized neuron that translates incoming sensory information into electrical signals

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Motor neuron

A specialized neuron that communicates with muscles and glands

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Inter neuron

A neuron that serves as a bridge between sensory and motor neurons

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Macro glia

Large glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann Cells

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Microglia

Tiny, mobile glial cells that migrate to areas of damage and digest debris

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Astrocyte

A large, star shaped glial cell of the central nervous system, responsible for structural support, isolation of the synapse, control of the Extracellular chemical environment at the synapse, and possible communication

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Oligodendrocyte

A glial cell that forms the myelin on central nervous system axons

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Schwann Cell

A glial cell that forms the myelin on axons in the peripheral nervous system

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Resting potential

The measurement of the electrical charge across the neural membrane when the cell is not processing information

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Diffusion

The force that moves molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration

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Concentration gradient

An unequal distribution in the concentration of molecules across a cell membrane

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Electrical force

The force that moves molecules with like electrical charges apart and those with opposite electrical charges together

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Depolarization

The movement of an electrical charge within a cell in a more positive direction

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Threshold

The level id depolarization at which an action potential is initiated