Chapter 11 - Sleep and biological rhythms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Sleep and biological rhythms Deck (16):
1

Zeitgeber

An external cue for setting biological rhythms

2

Free-running circadian rhythm

A rhythm that is not synchronized to environmental time cues

3

Entrainment

The resetting of internal biological clocks to the 24 hour cycle of the earths rotation

4

Jet lag

Fatigue, irritability and sleepiness resulting from travel across time zones

5

Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

An area of the hypothalamus located above the optic chiasm; resposible for maintaining circadian rhythms

6

Retinohypothalamic pathway

A pathway leading from the retina of the eye to the hypothalamus; provides light information necessary for the maintenance of circadian rhythms

7

Melanopsin

A photopigment used by non-image-forming (NIF) retinal cells

8

Melatonin

An indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland that participates in the regulation of circadian rhythms

9

Cortisol

A hormone released by the adrenal glands that promotes arousal

10

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

A type of depression that results from insufficient amounts of daylight during the winter months

11

Desynchronous

Having different periods and phases; in EEG, represents relatively low levels of brain activity

12

Synchronous

Having identical periods and phases; in EEG, represents relatively low levels of brain activity

13

Beta wave

A brain waveform having 15 to 20 cycles per second, associated with high levels of alertness during wakefulness

14

Alpha wave

A brain waveform having 9 to 12 cycles per second, associated with less alertness and more relaxation then beta activity during wakefulness

15

Ultradian cycle

A cycle that occurs several times in a single day

16

Circadian rhythm

A repeating cycle of about 24 hours