Chapter 4 - Psychopharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Psychopharmacology Deck (48):
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Neurotransmitter

A chemical messenger that communicates across a synapse

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Neuromodulator

A chemical messenger that communicates with target cells more distant then the synapse by diffusing away from the point of release

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Neurohormone

A chemical messenger that communicates with target cells at a great distance often by traveling through the circulation

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Small-molecule transmitter

One of a group of chemical messengers that includes amino acids and amines

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Neuropeptide

A peptide that acts as a neurotransmitter a Neuromodulator or a neurohormone

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Amino acid

An essential component of proteins

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Acetylcholine (ACh)

A major small-molecule neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction, in the autonomic nervous system and the central nervous system

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Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

An enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine

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Nicotinic receptor

A post synaptic receptor that responds to nicotine and ACh

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Muscarinic receptor

A post synaptic receptor that responds to both ACh and muscarine

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Monoamine

One of a major group of biogenic amine neurotransmitters including dopamine norepinephrine epinephrine and serotonin

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Catecholamine

A member of a group of related biogenetic amines that includes dopamine epinephrine and norepinephrine

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Indoleamine

One of a subgroup of mono amines including serotonin and melatonin

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Monoamine oxidase

A enzyme that breaks down monoamines

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L-Dopa

A substance produced during synthesis of catecholamines that is also administered as a treatment for Parkinson's Disease

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Dopamine

A major monoamine and catecholamines neurotransmitter implicated in motor control reward and psychosis

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Norepinephrine

A major monoamine and catecholamines neurotransmitter

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Epinephrine

One of the monoamine and carecholamine neurotransmitters also known as adrenaline

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Serotonin

A major monoamine and indoleamine neurotransmitter believed to participate in the regulation of mood sleep and appetite

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Glutamate

A major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA

A major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter

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Adenosine CNS

A byproduct of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that functions as a neurotransmitter

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Nitric oxide (NO)

A gas they performs a type of signaling between neurons

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Agonist

Substance that promotes the activity of a neurotransmitter

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Antagonist

Substance that reduces the action of a neurotransmitter

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Reserpine

A substance derived from a plant that depletes supplies of monoamines by interfering with the reputake of monoamines into the synaptic vesicles used to treat high blood pressure but often produces depression

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Botulism

A fatal condition produced by bacteria in spoiled food in which a toxin produced by the bacteria prevents the release of ACh

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Curare

A substance derived from Amazonian plants that causes paralysis by blocking the nictonic ACh receptor

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Benzodiazepine

A major tranquilizer that acts as a GABA agonist

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Barbiturate

A drug that produces strong sedation by acting as a GABA agonist used for amnesia and seizures

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Reputake inhibitor

Substance that interferes with the transport of released neurotransmitter molecules back into the presumaptic terminal

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Area prostrema

A brainstem area in which the blood barrier is more permeable that triggers vomiting in response to the detection of circulating toxins

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Addiction

A compulsive craving for drug effects or other experience

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Nucleus accumbens

A dopaminergic structure believed to participate in reward and addiction

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Psychoactive drug

A drug that produces changes in mental processes

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Caffeine

A stimulant drug found in coffee, tea cola and chocolate that acts as a antagonist to adenosine

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Nicotine

A stimulant drug that is the major active component found in tobacco

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Cocaine

A powerful addictive dopamine agonist derived from the leaves of the coca plant of South America

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Amphetamine

A highly addictive drug that acts as a potent dopamine agonist

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Methamphetamine

A variation of amphetamine that is cheaply produced and widely abused

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Ecstasy (MDMA(

a close relative of amphetamine that produces its behavioral effects by stimulating the release of serotonin

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Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)

An illegal liquid sedative that appears to affect the thresholds of release for a number of neurotransmitters -date rape body building

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Morphine

A compound extracted from opium used to treat pain

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Codeine

An opium derivative used medically for cough suppression and pain relief

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Opiate

An active substance derived from the opium poppy

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Endorphin

A naturally occurring Neuropeptide that is very closely related to opioids

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Tetahydrocannabinol THC

The major ingredient in cannabis

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Anandamide

A naturally occurring brain chemical that interacts with cannabinol do receptors