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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introduction Deck (26):
1

Comparative Politics

Study and comparison of domestic politics across countries.

2

International Relations

Relations between countries rather than the internals of each nation.

3

Institutions

Organizations or activities that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake.

4

Politics

The struggle in any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group.

5

Power

Ability to influence others or impose one's will on them.

6

Comparative Method

A way to compare cases and draw conclusions.

7

Inductive reasoning

the means by which we go from studying a case to generating a hypothesis.

8

Deductive reasoning

Starting with a puzzle and from there generating some hypothesis about cause and effect to test against a number of cases.

9

Correlation

apparent association between factors or variables.

10

Causal relationship

A claim to have found a cause and effect.

11

7 Challenges of Comparative politics

1. Political scientists have hard time controlling what they study.
2. Variables can interact and interconnected. *Multicausality* is an issue.
3. Limits to amount of information.
4. How we acquire information
5. Tend to be limited to single geographic region. Uneven coverage.
6. Confirmation bias. (Not necessarily political bias)
7. The search for cause and effect.

12

Area Studies

Studies of a geographic area. Regional focus.

13

Selection Bias

Where you find data that confirms your hypothesis.

14

Endogeneity

The problem of distinguishing cause and effect.

15

Theory

Defined as an integrated set of hypotheses, assumptions, and facts.

16

Modernization Theory

As society develops it transitions to capitalist democracies, converging around a set of shared values and characteristics. Thrown out when countries developed against expectations.

17

Behavioral revolution

The shift from studying political institutions toward studying individual political behavior. emphasis on causality, explanation, and prediction. Larger focus on quantitative vs qualitative methodology. Hoped to lead to legitimizing modernization theory. Thrown out when countries developed against expectations.

18

Qualitative evidence

interviews, observations, and archival and other forms of documentary research.

19

Traditional approach

Emphasis on describing political systems and their various institutions.

20

Quantitative method

Mathematical (from economic), statistical analysis, and wider use of cases unbound by area specialization.

21

Rational Choice/ Game theory

Study the rules and games by which politics is played and how human beings act on their preferences.

22

Formal Institutions

Officially sanctions rules and organizations that are relatively clear.

23

Informal Institutions

Unwritten and unofficial rules. No less powerful than formal.

24

Glue of society?

Institutions. When threatened people will either rush to defend or restructure it. Can lead to issue where people do not accept that institution has outlived its value.

25

Freedom

An individual's ability to act independently, without fear or restriction or punishment by the state or other individual groups.

26

Equality

Refers to a material standard of living shared by individuals within a community, society, or country.