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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Nations and Society Deck (27):
1

Society

Broad term referring to human organization, a collection of people bound by shared institutions that define how human relations should be conducted. Differs in how individuals define themselves and relationships to one another, to government, and to the state.

2

Ethnic Identity

aka ethnicity. Emphasis of a person's relation to other members of society. A set of institutions that bind people to a common culture. Includes language, religion, geographic location, customs, appearance, and history. Not inherently political, can develop political aspect through nationalism.

3

Ascription

The passing down of ethnic identity from generation to generation.

4

National Identity

An institution that binds people together through common political aspirations. Namely, self-government and sovereignty. Inherently political.

5

Nation

A group that desires self-government through an independent state.

6

Examples of National identity

Revolt of a colony for independence. Secession of nations.

7

Citizenship

Purely political identity. Developed explicitly by states and accepted or rejected wholly by citizens. Individuals' relation to the state. Citizens swear allegiance to the state in return for rights.

8

Patriotism

Pride in one's state. Pride in political system and seeking to defend/ promote it.

9

Good example: Palestinians

Strong national identity, but cannot be patriotic.

10

Nation-state

Sovereign state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent.

11

Ethnic Conflict

Conflict between ethnic groups that struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at one another's expense. Afghanistan group conflicts.

12

National Conflict

Seek to gain (or prevent another from gaining) sovereignty, clashing to form an independent state. US vs UK revolutionary war.

13

Political Attitudes

Views of the necessary *pace and scope of change* in the balance between freedom and equality. Usually divided into spectrum of left to right. Divided into radicals, liberal, conservative, and reactionary.

14

Radicals

Dramatic revolutionary change of the existing political, social, or economic order.

15

Liberals (attitude)

Favor evolutionary change that can be made within the system to reach goals.

16

Conservatives (attitude)

Question whether any change is necessary in existing institutions.

17

Reactionaries (attitude)

Seek to restore political, social, and economic institutions. Restoration of values and return to previous regime.

18

Political Ideologies (attitude)

Defined as sets of political values held by individuals regarding the fundamental goals of politics. Differs from attitudes in that these are focused on the ideal relation between freedom and equality and the proper role of political institutions. What is the ultimate goal?

19

Liberalism (ideology)

High priority on individual political and economic freedom

20

Liberal Democracy

System of political, social, and economic liberties, supported by participation, competition, and contestation. Greatest amount of individual freedoms will achieve greatest collective prosperity.

21

Communism

Rejects individual freedom for collective equality. State controls all economic assets.

22

Social Democracy (Socialism)

Draws from ideas connected to both communism and liberalism. Accepts a strong role for private ownership while maintaining economic equality. Strong capacity and autonomy needed.

23

Fascism

Hostile to the idea of individual freedom and rejects equality. Individuals are used to benefit the state. State expresses the national will.

24

Anarchism

The belief that the state hinders individual freedom and equality. That left to their own devices, individuals would create a better, more equal, and prosperous society.

25

Fundamentalism

Ideology that seeks to unite religion with the state or make faith the sovereign authority. Theocracy.

26

Political Culture

Society's norms for political activity.

27

Culture

If society is collection of individuals bound by institutions, culture is the content of the institutions that help define a society.