Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Democracy Deck (38):
Political power exercised directly or indirectly through participation, competition, and liberty.
A political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty.
A political system where elections are held, but competition is limited, majority party tends to win all the time, and liberty is restricted. Transparency, accountability, and liberty are highly restricted.
Roman origins. Emphasis on separation of powers within a state. Representation of the plebeians through elected officials.
Full participation from the people. Low accountability, difficulty to organize meetings, open to negative influence, tyranny of the majority with no checks and balances.
Elections of representatives. Accountability on the politicians.
Document king of England forced to sign in 13th century restricting his powers.
Organized life outside of the state. A fabric of organizations not necessarily political. Church groups, volunteer organizations, sports teams, companies. Believed to precede democracy, as it is powerful incentive to want to be represented.
Head of State and Head of Government. Branch that carries out the laws and policies of the state.
Head of State
Representation of the people, nationally and internationally. Embodies the articulating goals of the regime. Conducts foreign policy and wages war (though doesn't always declare it).
Head of Government
Deals with everyday tasks of running the state. Formulates and executes domestic policy alongside a cabinet of people.
The body where politics is debated. Charged with forming and passing legislation.
Two bodies of legislatures. Generally higher and lower houses. The higher house a check on the lower house. Fear that the lower house would have emotions too close to the voters.
One body of legislatures.
Two elements: PM (and his cabinet) and legislature. PM and his ministers come from the legislature. PM is head of government with head of state (monarch) being largely ceremonial.
Vote of no confidence
At any point the legislature can remove the Prime Minister from government at any time with a vote of confidence. Can lead to new parliamentary elections.
Plurality of seats
When party has more seats than any other party but still less than 50% of the seats. Generally cause for COALITION
President is head of state and government. Directly elected by voters.
PM and President with roles split between them. (PM head of gov't, President head of state)
PM has confidence legislation can be passed. PM can be removed easily in case it needs to be done. PM can stay in power as long as he's doing a good job.
Corruption easy. Less checks and balances. Public does not directly choose executive.
President directly elected and can draw on national mandate to create and enact legislation.
President can legislature can be different parties, causing divided gov't. Office does not allow for power sharing and president may not be easily removed from office except through elections.
Possible conflict between PM and president.
Group of people with similar interests that seek to control government.
Roles of Party
Coordination of ideas, organization of people, compromise. Representation of our ideas. Selection and recruitment of leaders.
A geographic area that an elected official represents.
Single Member District
aka "first past the post". One representative from each constituency. Can lead to two party systems.
Multimember Districts. More than one seat in gov't for each district. Reduces disparity between votes cast and seats held.
Voters vote for party.
Voters vote for either party or candidate.
Voters vote for candidate.
Mixed electoral system
Voters given two votes. One for party one for candidate.
Promotion of equality.
Promotion of freedom.
Option for voter to vote directly on legislation.