Chapter 1 - Introduction to Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy > Chapter 1 - Introduction to Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introduction to Anatomy Deck (198)
Loading flashcards...
1

each region is studied separately and all aspects of that region are covered at the same time

regional approach

2

each system is studied separately and followed throughout the body

systemic approach

3

what are the planes of the body?

coronal, sagittal, and transverse planes

4

what are the positions of the body?

Anterior (ventral), posterior (dorsal), medial, lateral, superior, inferior, proximal, distal, cranial (toward the head), caudal (towards the tail), and rostral (towards the nose)

5

what is anatomical position?

face looking forward
hands by sides
palms forward
feet together
toes forward

6

closest to the outside of the skin

superficial

7

what are the two subgroups of the skeletal system?

axial
appendicular

8

includes the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum

axial subgroup

9

includes shoulder girdle and upper limb, pelvic girdle and lower limb

appendicular subgroup

10

consists of bone and cartilage

skeletal system

11

avascular connective tissue that supports soft tissues, provides smooth gliding surfaces for joints, and allow bone growth

cartilage

12

what are the 3 types of cartilage?

hyaline (most common), elastic (external ear), fibrocartilage (intervertebral discs)

13

a calcified living connective tissue that: supports body structures, protects vital organs, stores calcium and phosphorous, levers for muscles, contains blood-producing cells

bone

14

what are the two types of bone?

compact
spongy

15

dense and forms the outer shell of all bones and surrounds spongy bone

compact bone

16

spicules enclosing cavities containing blood-forming cells

spongy bone

17

how are bones classified based on shape?

-Long bones- e.g. humerus in upper limb
-Short bones- cuboidal (e.g. bones of wrist)
-Flat bones- 2 compact bone plates separated by spongy bone (skull)
-irregular bones- bones of various shapes (e.g. face bones)
-Sesamoid bones- round or oval that develop in tendons (patellar)

18

Do bones have a blood supply and are they innervated?

Bones are vascular and innervated by a nerve

19

how does blood and nerves enter bone?

Nutrient arteries and nerves (vasometers) enter the internal cavity

20

what are bones covered in?

a fibrous tissue membrane called a periosteum

21

what is the periosteum innervated by?

sensory nerve fibers ( e.g. pain)

22

sites where 2 skeletal elements come together

joints

23

what are the two types of joints?

synovial
solid

24

*skeletal elements separated by a cavity
*Two ends of the bones wrapped in joint capsule (ball of tissue)
*Cavity between two bones, which has synovial fluid
*Plenty of movement
*easier to dislocate
*examples: knees, elbows, hip, ankle

synovial joint

25

*no cavity, elements held together by connective tissue
* ligament or cartilage (teeth)
*little to no movement

solid joints

26

What are the parts of a synovial joint?

*Hyaline cartilage
*joint capsule
*tendons
*articular discs (fibrocartilage)
*fat pads

27

*covers articulating surfaces
*prevents bone grinding; slippery

hyaline cartilage

28

*consists of synovial and fibrous
*synovial is innermost layer

joint capsule

29

absorb compression forces, adjust to change in joint contours, and increase range of movement

Articular discs (fibrocartilage)

30

*usually occur between the synovial membrane and capsule and move in and out of joint contours as joint moves
*slip and slide out of joint as it moves

fat pads