Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introduction to Anatomy Deck (198)
each region is studied separately and all aspects of that region are covered at the same time
each system is studied separately and followed throughout the body
what are the planes of the body?
coronal, sagittal, and transverse planes
what are the positions of the body?
Anterior (ventral), posterior (dorsal), medial, lateral, superior, inferior, proximal, distal, cranial (toward the head), caudal (towards the tail), and rostral (towards the nose)
what is anatomical position?
face looking forward
hands by sides
closest to the outside of the skin
what are the two subgroups of the skeletal system?
includes the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
includes shoulder girdle and upper limb, pelvic girdle and lower limb
consists of bone and cartilage
avascular connective tissue that supports soft tissues, provides smooth gliding surfaces for joints, and allow bone growth
what are the 3 types of cartilage?
hyaline (most common), elastic (external ear), fibrocartilage (intervertebral discs)
a calcified living connective tissue that: supports body structures, protects vital organs, stores calcium and phosphorous, levers for muscles, contains blood-producing cells
what are the two types of bone?
dense and forms the outer shell of all bones and surrounds spongy bone
spicules enclosing cavities containing blood-forming cells
how are bones classified based on shape?
-Long bones- e.g. humerus in upper limb
-Short bones- cuboidal (e.g. bones of wrist)
-Flat bones- 2 compact bone plates separated by spongy bone (skull)
-irregular bones- bones of various shapes (e.g. face bones)
-Sesamoid bones- round or oval that develop in tendons (patellar)
Do bones have a blood supply and are they innervated?
Bones are vascular and innervated by a nerve
how does blood and nerves enter bone?
Nutrient arteries and nerves (vasometers) enter the internal cavity
what are bones covered in?
a fibrous tissue membrane called a periosteum
what is the periosteum innervated by?
sensory nerve fibers ( e.g. pain)
sites where 2 skeletal elements come together
what are the two types of joints?
*skeletal elements separated by a cavity
*Two ends of the bones wrapped in joint capsule (ball of tissue)
*Cavity between two bones, which has synovial fluid
*Plenty of movement
*easier to dislocate
*examples: knees, elbows, hip, ankle
*no cavity, elements held together by connective tissue
* ligament or cartilage (teeth)
*little to no movement
What are the parts of a synovial joint?
*articular discs (fibrocartilage)
*covers articulating surfaces
*prevents bone grinding; slippery
*consists of synovial and fibrous
*synovial is innermost layer
absorb compression forces, adjust to change in joint contours, and increase range of movement
Articular discs (fibrocartilage)