Chapter 1 - Introduction To Earth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introduction To Earth Deck (153):
1

Earth's diameter is closest to ___ km.

12,000

2

The response to earth's rotation is...

Polar Flattening

3

The first nearly correct measurement of the earth's circumference was made by...

Eratosthenes

4

"Greenwich Mean Time" is also known as...

Universal Time Coordinated

5

The sun's rays are directly overhead at the ___ on or about December 21.

Tropic of Capricorn

6

The north end of the earth's axis points towards...

Polaris

7

How many degrees of latitude are between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn?

47

8

The Greenwich Meridian is also known as the...

Prime Meridian

9

At the equator, a given point on earth's surface travels about ___ km/hr.

1,600

10

Near the North Pole, one degree of latitude extends ___ km on the ground.

111

11

At the North Pole, one degree of longitude extends ___ km on the ground.

0

12

The world is divided into ___ standard time zones.

24

13

Before time zones were created in the 1880s, one could encounter ___ time standards on a rail trip across the U.S..

More than 20

14

Of the following, which is a greater circle?

Equator

15

Of the following, which is the first day of spring?

Vernal Equinox

16

The maximum distance between earth and sun occurs in July and is called the ___.

Aphelion

17

On June 21, the sun's rays are directly over the...

Tropic of Cancer

18

The fact that at any time during the year, the earth's axis is parallel to it's orientation at all other times is called its parallelism, or...

Polarity

19

Russia contains ___ time zones.

9

20

The altitudinal difference between the top of the tallest mountain and the bottom of the deepest ocean trench is CLOSEST to ___ km.

20

21

The U.S. Spans ___ time zones.

6

22

The closest position taken by the earth relative to the sun is ___ million km.

147

23

When the circle of illumination just touched the arctic circle and the North Pole is dark, the date is closest to...

December 21

24

The geographic grid mine 180 degrees of longitude from the prime meridian is the...

180th meridian

25

Our solar system contains ___ moons revolving around the planets.

More than 100

26

A cross section of earth cut from pole to pole would reveal which shape?

Ellipse

27

How many time zones are contained within Alaska?

1

28

A ___ separates earth into two hemispheres.

Great circle

29

Longitude is divided into multiples of ___ degrees for the purpose of delimiting standard time zones.

15

30

Eratosthenes was the first to accurately measure the earth's...

Circumference

31

Universal Time Coordinated is also known as...

Greenwich Mean Time

32

The 0 degree meridian is the same line as the...

Prime Meridian

33

A spot on the earth's surface rotates fastest at the...

Equator

34

One degree of longitude equals 0 miles on the ground at the...

North Pole

35

The distance of 150 million km is CLOSEST to being...

The average earth/sun distance

36

The MilkyWay is one of, at least, ___ galaxies in the universe.

200 billion

37

The earth/sun aphelion occurs once per year during the month of...

July

38

When the sun's rays are directly overhead at the Tropic of Capricorn, it is...

December 21

39

At the time of the aphelion, earth is ___ million km from the sun.

152

40

The MilkyWay is a galaxy some ___ light years in diameter.

100,000

41

The solar system's Jovian planets are more likely composed of...

Gas

42

The moon is some ___ km from earth.

385,000

43

In science, the term theory is...

The highest order of understanding

44

At the International Date Line, there is a change of...

Day

45

The farthest north the vertical rays of the sun ever reach north of the equator occurs on or about...

June 21

46

Standardization in world time zones dates from...

1884

47

The earth is 3.3% closer to the sun during the northern hemisphere ___ than when it is farthest away.

Winter

48

On both the spring and fall equinoxes, the sun's rays are vertically overhead at the...

Equator

49

The highest numbered latitude used in the geographic grid is ___ degrees.

90

50

Which of the following is a central meridian in the standardized time zone...

15 degrees W

51

A ___ is a vertical piece of metal on a sundial.

Gnomon

52

The constant angle between earth's axis and the plane of the ecliptic is called earth's...

Polarity

53

The circle of illumination just touches the Antarctic circle on or about...

June 21

54

The acceptance of a theory or hypothesis is based on...

A preponderance of evidence

55

Numbered meridians are...

Semicircles

56

The most important physical effect of the earth's rotation is...

The alternation of sunlight and darkness

57

The solid, inorganic portion of the earth system is known as the...

Lithosphere

58

The size of the universe is best described as...

Vast beyond comprehension

59

A nebula is...

A cloud of gas and dust.

60

The surfaces of the inner planets of our solar system seem to be composed of...

Mineral matter

61

The MilkyWay is one of over ___ galaxies in the universe.

Many billions

62

After it was part of a nebula and before it was the sun, our sun was a...

Protostar

63

Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain on earth and its altitude is closest to ___ m.

9,000

64

The best description of the actual shape of the earth is an...

Oblate spheroid

65

The earth is one of ___ planets in the solar system.

8

66

The earth rotates about its...

Axis

67

Which of the following is NOT defined by latitude?

Meridian

68

Which of the following distances is CLOSEST to the actual distance associated with one degree of latitude?

100km

69

Which of the following best describes the latitude and longitude of North America?

Northern & Western Hemispheres

70

Suppose you are standing on the standard time meridian of 75 degrees W. Which would be the next standard time meridian to your west?

90 degrees W

71

Which of the following takes the longest time?

A revolution of the earth

72

The angular inclination of the earth's axis with respect to a line perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic is...

23.5 degrees

73

At the June solstice, day length varies from ___ hours at the equator to ___ hours at the North Pole.

12,24

74

The perihelion is during the month of...

January

75

Which of the following subsystems includes all living things on earth?

Biosphere

76

Pluto is now classified as a...

Dwarf planet

77

The earth's polar and equatorial diameters vary by ___ percent.

0.3

78

The line connecting the points of maximum flattening on earth's surface is called the...

Axis

79

Which of the following is also an entire great circle?

Equator

80

In angular measurement, a minute contains ___ seconds.

60

81

At the equator, one degree of latitude is approximately equal to...

One degree of longitude.

82

The "natural" baseline which serves as a baseline to measure longitude...

Does not exist.

83

The term "a.m." means...

Before solar noon.

84

Any standard time zone extends ___ degrees of latitude to the east and west of the central meridian.

7.5

85

An Equinox has the property of...

12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night at all latitudes.

86

When the vertical rays of the sun cross the equator on their way northward, the date is known as ___ in the northern hemisphere.

The vernal equinox

87

Geography is...

A combination of physical and social sciences

88

Earth is...

One of the inner planets.

89

The universe is thought to be on the order of ___ billion years old.

13.7

90

Our earthly grid system is also referred to as a ___ and consists of lines of latitude and longitude.

Graticule

91

Which of the following is not contained within earth's system of latitude and longitude?

A longitude of 185 degrees E

92

The cause of the earth's seasons is the...

Polarity of the axis

93

In NYC, this is the shortest day of the year and the sun is also the lowest in the sky.

December solstice

94

At times, latitudes higher than ___ degrees can have 24 hours or more of continuous darkness.

66.5

95

The plane of the ecliptic is...

At an angle from the plane of the equator.

96

Using a gnomon, one can...

Tell local time.

97

The Sun is a star in the ___ Galaxy.

MilkyWay

98

The shape of the MilkyWay is similar to a...

Spiral-shaped disk

99

The amount of time the earth takes to revolve around the sun is most properly known as a...

Tropical year

100

___ is considered a dwarf planet.

Pluto

101

___ is the deepest spot in the ocean.

Mariana Trench

102

To earth people, Polaris is an important star because...

It is a guide for navigation.

103

The graticule of the earth is also known as...

Latitude & longitude

104

One can tell it is solar noon by observing...

The length of shadows.

105

What happened between 4.5 and 5 billion years ago?

The beginning of our solar system occurred.

106

The word geography comes from the Greek, meaning...

Earth description

107

Which of the following is not a major topic taught in a course of introductory physical geography?

Population

108

The shape of earth's orbit around the sun is an...

Ellipse

109

The ___ is the name of the plane on which the earth revolves.

Ecliptic

110

Pluto's orbit is in the...

Kuiper belt

111

The ___ Equinox of the Southern Hemisphere takes place when the vertical rays of the sun cross the equator on the journey southward.

Vernal

112

The "living zone" in the atmosphere extends from earth's surface to an altitude of approximately ___ km.

5

113

The origin of the universe is incompletely understood and is called...

The "Big Bang"

114

Earth rotates on it's rotational axis. A plane at a right angle to and bisecting earth's axis is known as the...

Plane of the equator

115

Earth revolves around the North Star.

False

116

The North Star is also known as Polaris.

True

117

Almost all countries in the world base their time on UTC.

True

118

The circle of illumination divides the earth into a light and dark hemisphere.

True

119

The prime meridian was adopted as a result of an international conference in 1884.

True

120

The plane of the ecliptic is the same thing as the perihelion.

False

121

The equator is an example of a great circle in the geographic grid.

True

122

The vertical rays of the sun take one year to travel from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn and back to the Tropic of Cancer.

True

123

The northern hemisphere's vernal equinox occurs on September 23.

False

124

The Tropic of Cancer is an example of a great circle.

False

125

The plane of the equator and the plane of the ecliptic are the same thing.

False

126

The earth's circumference is close to 40,000km.

True

127

In the northern hemisphere the longest day of the year is at the vernal equinox.

False

128

The shortest distance between the earth and the sun during the year is approximately 147 million km.

True

129

The northern hemisphere's shortest day of the year is at the autumnal equinox.

False

130

At the equator, the sun's rays at noon strike the earth at an angle of 90 degrees above the horizon twice each year.

True

131

On December 22, all areas inside the Antarctic circle are in daylight for a full 24 hours.

True

132

The earth year's length of 365.25 is known as the perihelion.

False

133

At the North Pole, the speed of rotation of the earth is 0 km/hr.

True

134

Larger angles of solar incidence concentrate solar energy in smaller areas of earth's surface.

True

135

The international date line and the 180th meridian are the same line.

False

136

There are 24 minute for each degree of latitude.

False

137

At one time, several nations had their own prime meridians.

True

138

There is a parallel or meridian for every degree, minute, and second on the globe.

True

139

The international date line follows the arctic and Antarctic circles.

False

140

The vertical distance between earth's highest mountain and deepest ocean trench is approximately 20km.

True

141

The circle of illumination is a small circle.

False

142

The lowest point of the sea bottom is approximately 11,000 meters below sea level.

True

143

The international date line is in the middle of a time zone.

True

144

Russia occupies 3 time zones.

False

145

In the northern hemisphere, days become continually shorter after March 22.

False

146

The adoption of daylight savings time would be of little value for most nations in the tropics.

True

147

All planets in our solar system rotate from east to west.

False

148

The sun makes up more than 99% of the mass of our solar system.

True

149

When one crosses the prime meridian the time zone does not change.

True

150

Our solar system is known as the MilkyWay.

False

151

The vertical rays of the sun are present at the arctic circle during the June solstice.

False

152

The vertical rays of the sun migrate between 23.5 degrees N and 23.5 degrees S.

True

153

The coriolis effect deflects wind and water currents.

True