Chapter 3 - Introduction to the Atmosphere Flashcards Preview

Physical Geography > Chapter 3 - Introduction to the Atmosphere > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Introduction to the Atmosphere Deck (165):
1

2) A major characteristic of the troposphere is the ________.
A) decrease of temperature with increasing altitude
B) presence of the ozone layer
C) total absence of water vapor
D) increase of pressure with altitude
E) hottest temperatures in the atmosphere

A) decrease of temperature with increasing altitude

2

3) Above ________ kilometer(s), the atmospheric pressure is so slight as not to register on an ordinary barometer.
A) 0.8
B) 8
C) 80
D) 800
E) 8,000

C) 80

3

4) The controls of weather and climate include all but which of the following?
A) the distribution of land and water
B) latitude
C) the plane of the Equator
D) the general circulation of the ocean currents
E) altitude

C) the plane of the Equator

4

5) The normal percent of water vapor in dry air is ________ percent.
A) 0-4
B) 5-10
C) 15-20
D) 25-30
E) 45-50

A) 0-4

5

6) The segment of the atmosphere which blends into interplanetary space is called the ________.
A) troposphere
B) exosphere
C) stratosphere
D) mesosphere
E) thermosphere

B) exosphere

6

7) The side of a mountain sheltered from prevailing winds is the ________.
A) windward
B) leeward
C) Coriolis
D) meridional
E) sunnier

B) leeward

7

8) The third most plentiful gas in the Earth's lower atmosphere is ________.
A) nitrogen
B) oxygen
C) argon
D) neon
E) helium

C) argon

8

9) Oxygen (O2) is being added to the atmosphere by
A) solar radiation.
B) animal decomposition.
C) meteorites.
D) vegetation.
E) the burning of coal.

D) vegetation.

9

10) ________ is (are) crucial to the formation of clouds in the atmosphere.
A) Ozone
B) Argon
C) Neon
D) Particulates
E) Lightning

D) Particulates

10

11) With the exception of water vapor, ________ is the most plentiful of the variable gases in the atmosphere.
A) argon
B) carbon dioxide
C) sulfur dioxide
D) ozone
E) carbon monoxide

B) carbon dioxide

11

12) The segment of the atmosphere in which gases maintain an approximately uniform composition is the ________.
A) homosphere
B) exosphere
C) ionosphere
D) stratosphere
E) troposphere

A) homosphere

12

13) A variable gas in the atmosphere nearly absent from the higher elevations is ________.
A) carbon dioxide
B) ozone
C) sulfur dioxide
D) carbon monoxide
E) water vapor

E) water vapor

13

14) At an elevation of 16 kilometers (in the lower stratosphere), atmospheric pressure is approximately one-________ of what it is at the surface.
A) tenth
B) thousandth
C) quarter
D) half
E) hundredth

A) tenth

14

15) The ________ is the layer of the atmosphere where electrified atoms are plentiful.
A) thermosphere
B) ionosphere
C) troposphere
D) exosphere
E) stratosphere

B) ionosphere

15

16) The main impact of ozone on life on the Earth's surface is to ________.
A) provide oxygen for the atmosphere
B) reduce ultraviolet solar radiation
C) serve as nucleus for cloud formation
D) act as a lid preventing gases from escape
E) initiate violent storms

B) reduce ultraviolet solar radiation

16

17) The lower 80 kilometers or so in the atmosphere in which gases are found in uniform proportions is the ________.
A) heterosphere
B) homosphere
C) ionosphere
D) exosphere
E) stratosphere

B) homosphere

17

18) One-half of the atmosphere lies below the elevation of ________ kilometers.
A) 0.56
B) 5.6
C) 56
D) 560
E) 5,600

B) 5.6

18

19) The atmospheric layer in which gases do not maintain a uniform composition is the ________.
A) ionosphere
B) homosphere
C) troposphere
D) heterosphere
E) none of the above

E) none of the above

19

20) It is really improper to discuss or classify climate with any record less than ________.
A) several weeks
B) 1 year
C) 5 years
D) several decades
E) 100 years

D) several decades

20

1) The main component of the lower atmosphere by total volume is ________.
A) oxygen
B) nitrogen
C) helium
D) argon
E) water vapor

B) nitrogen

21

21) The approximate, indistinct outer boundary of the atmosphere extends outward at least ________ kilometers above the surface.
A) 1,000
B) 2,500
C) 5,000
D) 6,000
E) thousands of kilometers

E) thousands of kilometers

22

22) Over warm oceans, water vapor is at its maximum and comprises about ________ percent of the volume of the atmosphere.
A) 1
B) 4
C) 10
D) 25
E) 50

B) 4

23

23) Which of the following is NOT gaseous in the atmosphere?
A) argon
B) clouds
C) neon
D) helium
E) water vapor

B) clouds

24

24) A main absorber of ultraviolet radiation in the atmosphere is ________.
A) argon
B) neon
C) ozone
D) carbon dioxide
E) dust

C) ozone

25

25) The homosphere includes the lowest ________ kilometers of the atmosphere.
A) 0.8
B) 8
C) 80
D) 800
E) 8,000

C) 80

26

26) Thousands of kilometers above the surface is the upper limit of the ________.
A) atmosphere
B) homosphere
C) troposphere
D) thermosphere
E) none of the above

A) atmosphere

27

27) Water vapor is nearly absent ________.
A) in the upper reaches of the atmosphere
B) in the lower reaches of the atmosphere
C) in the troposphere
D) in the atmosphere over sea surfaces
E) in the atmosphere over land surfaces

A) in the upper reaches of the atmosphere

28

28) The exosphere marks the outward limit of the ________.
A) troposphere
B) stratosphere
C) atmosphere
D) thermosphere
E) geosphere

C) atmosphere

29

29) Most surface winds in the tropics ________.
A) come from the east
B) come from the west
C) originate in the Sahara
D) originate in the Amazon basin
E) originate in the Australian desert

A) come from the east

30

30) Mountains act as major climatic barriers with the sheltered or ________ side receiving less moisture than the exposed side.
A) windward
B) struck
C) leeward
D) Coriolis
E) north

C) leeward

31

31) Argon is the ________ most plentiful gas in the atmosphere.
A) single
B) second
C) third
D) fourth
E) fifth

C) third

32

32) Nitrogen is the ________ component of the atmosphere in terms of volume.
A) main
B) second
C) third
D) fourth
E) fifth

A) main

33

33) ________ is (are) responsible for placing oxygen in the atmosphere.
A) Automobile exhaust
B) Burning
C) Chlorofluorocarbons
D) Lightning strikes
E) Plants

E) Plants

34

34) On the average, the tropopause is highest above the surface over the ________.
A) North Pole
B) Arctic Circle
C) South Pole
D) Equator
E) Antarctic Circle

D) Equator

35

35) Oxygen is the ________ component of the atmosphere in terms of volume.
A) main
B) second
C) third
D) fourth
E) fifth

B) second

36

36) In general, warm ocean currents are located ________ of the continents.
A) east
B) west
C) equatorward
D) poleward
E) south

A) east

37

37) Vertical mixing and turbulence are most characteristic of the ________.
A) troposphere
B) exosphere
C) thermosphere
D) mesosphere
E) stratosphere

A) troposphere

38

38) The most basic factor causing the distribution of hot and cold temperatures over Earth's surface is ________.
A) the general circulation
B) oceanic circulation
C) latitude
D) topography
E) storms

C) latitude

39

39) Air is best described as a(n)
A) chemical compound.
B) element.
C) mixture.
D) colloid.
E) particulate.

C) mixture.

40

40) The influence on climate of carbon dioxide is mainly due to its ability to absorb ________.
A) water
B) infrared radiation
C) helium
D) argon
E) ions

B) infrared radiation

41

41) Which of the following is a "climate element" and NOT a "weather element"?
A) temperature
B) moisture
C) pressure
D) wind
E) latitude

E) latitude

42

42) Which of the following is an atmospheric gas?
A) oxygen
B) nitrogen
C) carbon dioxide
D) water vapor
E) They are all gases.

E) They are all gases.

43

43) Which of the following would be most variable at your location on a day-to-day basis?
A) oxygen
B) nitrogen
C) carbon dioxide
D) water vapor
E) They all vary.

D) water vapor

44

44) The ozone layer is in that portion of the atmosphere known as the
A) troposphere.
B) mesosphere.
C) stratosphere.
D) heterosphere.
E) ionosphere.

C) stratosphere.

45

45) Which of the following substances is closely associated with the breakdown of the ozone layer?
A) carbon dioxide
B) chlorofluorocarbons
C) nitrogen oxides
D) water vapor
E) infrared radiation

B) chlorofluorocarbons

46

46) A "hole" in the ozone layer was first discovered over
A) Antarctica
B) the Equator
C) the United States
D) Africa
E) Hollywood

A) Antarctica

47

47) Which of the following is an important source of particles in the atmosphere?
A) salt from the sea
B) volcanic eruptions
C) emissions from engines
D) soot from fires
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

48

48) In the atmosphere, the temperature decreases with increasing altitude in the ________ and the ________.
A) thermosphere, mesosphere
B) mesosphere, stratosphere
C) stratosphere, troposphere
D) troposphere, mesosphere
E) troposphere, thermosphere

D) troposphere, mesosphere

49

49) Which of the following is NOT considered a climatic control?
A) temperature
B) latitude
C) general circulation of oceans
D) topographic barriers
E) distribution of land and water

A) temperature

50

50) Given the relationship between altitude and atmospheric pressure, the pressure at 20 kilometers above the surface is
A) almost the same as it is at the surface.
B) too high for humans.
C) tiny, compared to sea level.
D) about three-quarters that of sea level.
E) barely high enough for humans to breathe

C) tiny, compared to sea level.

51

51) Chlorine in the stratosphere will turn ozone directly into
A) smog.
B) oxygen (O2).
C) chlorofluorocarbons.
D) air.
E) nitrogen.

B) oxygen (O2).

52

52) Together, oxygen and nitrogen comprise what percentage of the atmosphere?
A) less than 1%
B) less than 10%
C) about 25%
D) about 75%
E) more than 95%

E) more than 95%

53

53) Which of the following is a major source of nitrogen in the atmosphere?
A) meteorite collisions
B) photosynthesis
C) the breakdown of ozone
D) decay of organic matter
E) chlorofluorocarbons

D) decay of organic matter

54

54) The warm zone near the top of the stratosphere is the result of heating from
A) atmospheric pollution.
B) the rise of air.
C) the output of volcanoes.
D) thermal infrared emissions from clouds.
E) the absorption of solar energy

E) the absorption of solar energy.

55

55) If one were 30 kilometers above sea level, one would be in the part of the atmosphere known as the
A) stratosphere.
B) troposphere.
C) exosphere.
D) heterosphere.
E) mesosphere.

A) stratosphere.

56

56) Which of the following is NOT a natural characteristic of the troposphere?
A) contains most of the atmospheric water vapor
B) is the lowest layer of the atmosphere
C) has the highest pressures in the atmosphere
D) has the hottest temperatures in the atmosphere
E) is the layer associated with "weather"

D) has the hottest temperatures in the atmosphere

57

57) Which is a danger of increased ultraviolet exposure at the Earth's surface?
A) the killing of microorganisms on the ocean surface
B) the suppression of the human immune system
C) the increase of skin cancer in humans
D) the diminishing of yields in many crops
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

58

58) The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is
A) a small fraction of 1%.
B) approximately 10%.
C) approximately 30%.
D) approximately 50%.
E) approximately 75%.

A) a small fraction of 1%.

59

59) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of air?
A) It is a chemical compound.
B) It is odorless.
C) It is tasteless.
D) It is colorless.
E) It is mostly packed close to the Earth's surface.

A) It is a chemical compound.

60

60) Clouds owe their existence to the presence of atmospheric ________.
A) particulates
B) oxygen
C) argon
D) sunlight
E) carbon dioxide

A) particulates

61

61) The smallest atmospheric particles can remain suspended in the atmosphere for a period of
A) seconds.
B) minutes.
C) hours.
D) days.
E) years.

E) years.

62

62) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the atmosphere?
A) It contains water vapor.
B) It is poorly mixed in the heterosphere.
C) It is not readily compressed.
D) It is very well mixed near the Earth's surface.
E) It has clouds which float in it.

C) It is not readily compressed.

63

63) Which atmospheric layer is directly above the tropopause?
A) exosphere
B) mesosphere
C) troposphere
D) stratosphere
E) thermosphere

D) stratosphere

64

64) The stratosphere derives its name from which property?
A) It is the hottest layer of the atmosphere.
B) It is the coldest layer of the atmosphere.
C) It is the layer closest to the ground.
D) It is the layer with the most clouds.
E) It is a layer with little vertical mixing.

E) It is a layer with little vertical mixing.

65

65) The coldest temperature in the atmosphere can be found at the ________.
A) tropopause
B) exopause
C) stratospause
D) thermopause
E) mesopause

E) mesopause

66

66) The source of warming in the upper stratosphere is ________.
A) energy absorbed by ozone
B) thermal infrared energy absorbed from the Sun
C) heat released from water vapor
D) increasing amounts of carbon dioxide
E) not yet understood by science

A) energy absorbed by ozone

67

67) It is thought that the Earth's climate is being changed rapidly by
A) human-caused releases of impurities.
B) increased oxygen content.
C) natural sources of change.
D) dust from volcanoes.
E) decreases in carbon dioxide.

A) human-caused releases of impurities.

68

68) Ozone is actually
A) a form of carbon dioxide.
B) three-atomed oxygen.
C) more healthy to breathe than is oxygen.
D) a pollutant caused by the burning of fossil fuels.
E) the most common substance in the troposphere.

B) three-atomed oxygen.

69

69) "Weather" and "climate"
A) describe the day-to-day state of the atmosphere.
B) are terms which cannot be used in science.
C) refer to the atmosphere as studied on different time scales.
D) are synonymous terms.
E) differ in that "weather" is studied in Geography and "climate" is not.

C) refer to the atmosphere as studied on different time scales.

70

70) The order of the atmospheric thermal layers from the surface up into the atmosphere is:
A) thermosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, troposphere.
B) stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, troposphere.
C) troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.
D) troposphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, thermosphere.
E) exosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, mesosphere.

C) troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.

71

71) Some particulates absorb the water vapor around them. They are said to be ________.
A) hygroscopic
B) hydrophobic
C) heavy
D) gases
E) precipitation

A) hygroscopic

72

72) Which of the following is an important function of Earth's atmosphere?
A) insulates the surface against temperature extremes
B) maintains a water supply
C) supplies the oxygen for life
D) screens out much of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

73

73) Which of the following best describes the atmosphere at any single location on a day-to-day basis?
A) The major components vary widely.
B) Water vapor is constant.
C) Particulates are constant.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

E) none of the above

74

74) Which of the following exists highest in the atmosphere?
A) troposphere
B) mesopause
C) tropopause
D) stratosphere
E) stratopause

B) mesopause

75

75) The source of heating in the thermosphere is the absorption of ________.
A) infrared rays from the Sun
B) infrared rays from the Earth
C) visible energy from the Sun
D) ultraviolet rays from the Sun
E) light rays reflected from the Earth

D) ultraviolet rays from the Sun

76

76) Which of the following statements about the atmosphere is TRUE?
A) Pressure increases with elevation.
B) Most of its mass is relatively close to the ground.
C) It has a sharply defined top called the atmopause.
D) Temperature decreases uniformly with height.
E) It is well-mixed from bottom to top.

B) Most of its mass is relatively close to the ground.

77

77) Which of the following can be found lowest in the atmosphere?
A) exosphere
B) ionosphere
C) thermosphere
D) ozone layer
E) tropopause

E) tropopause

78

78) "Weather" and "climate" are
A) synonyms.
B) differentiated because climate studies the stratosphere.
C) both atmospheric studies based on many decades of data.
D) differentiated because climate studies the long term.
E) differentiated because weather is not covered in your textbook.

D) differentiated because climate studies the long term.

79

79) Which of the following climatic controls can be considered to be the "most important"?
A) longitude
B) latitude
C) elevation
D) distribution of land and water
E) storms

B) latitude

80

80) ________ is (are) a source of chlorofluorocarbons.
A) Human-produced chemicals
B) Air conditioning
C) Manufacture of plastics
D) Aerosol sprays
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

81

81) The "hole" in the Antarctic ozone
A) has now disappeared.
B) should disappear very soon.
C) was never proven to have existed.
D) persists longer and longer each year.
E) is invisible to satellite observations.

D) persists longer and longer each year.

82

82) The most important feature of ozone in the ozone layer is ________.
A) it is the source of atmospheric oxygen
B) it purifies the air's contents of pollutants
C) its role in cloud formation
D) it absorbs ultraviolet energy
E) it reflects sunlight

D) it absorbs ultraviolet energy

83

83) The part of the atmosphere that contains "weather" and supports life
A) extends about as high above the Earth as the distance from Earth's surface to its center (radius).
B) is very shallow.
C) is the hottest part of the atmosphere.
D) consists largely of oxygen.
E) consists of a chemical called "air".

B) is very shallow.

84

84) By volume, which of the following comprises more than 1 percent of Earth's atmosphere?
A) carbon monoxide
B) chlorofluorocarbons
C) ozone
D) carbon dioxide
E) none of the above

E) none of the above

85

85) ________ particulates in the atmosphere absorb water and are the basis for cloud formation.
A) Gaseous
B) Hygroscopic
C) Poisonous
D) Blue
E) Carbon

B) Hygroscopic

86

86) Which of the following is NOT associated with particulates?
A) sunlight absorption
B) sunlight reflection
C) cause clouds to form
D) breakdown of the ozone layer
E) may remain suspended for months or years

D) breakdown of the ozone layer

87

87) The Montreal Protocol of 1987 was an international treaty to halt the production of
A) nuclear weapons
B) carbon dioxide
C) water vapor
D) automobiles
E) chlorofluorocarbons

E) chlorofluorocarbons

88

88) In terms of atmospheric change, which of the following is TRUE?
A) Change has never occurred.
B) Humans are adding impurities to the atmosphere at a rate previously unknown.
C) The ozone hole problem is now solved.
D) The carbon dioxide problem is now solved.
E) International treaties have been able to halt climate change.

B) Humans are adding impurities to the atmosphere at a rate previously unknown.

89

89) The middle latitudes are dominated by wind flows which are mainly from the ________.
A) north
B) south
C) east
D) west
E) Arctic

D) west

90

90) Ozone is destroyed by CFCs because the ________ in the CFCs combines with oxygen.
A) carbon dioxide
B) dust
C) fluorine
D) liquids
E) chlorine

E) chlorine

91

91) Which of the following makes up more than 10 percent of the mass of the atmosphere?
A) water vapor
B) hydrogen
C) argon
D) helium
E) nitrogen

E) nitrogen

92

92) The present atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is approximately 390 ________.
A) parts per hundred
B) parts per thousand
C) parts per million
D) parts per billion
E) parts per trillion

C) parts per million

93

93) Air pressure
A) remains unchanged with increasing altitude.
B) increases at an increasing rate with altitude.
C) increases at a steady rate with altitude.
D) decreases at a steady rate with increase of altitude.
E) decreases at a decreasing rate with increase of altitude.

E) decreases at a decreasing rate with increase of altitude.

94

94) Which of the following is true of CFCs?
A) They are now banned by international treaty.
B) They have disappeared in the atmosphere.
C) They are very toxic to humans.
D) They are not able to exist for long in the atmosphere.
E) They are now the most dominant gases in the stratosphere.

A) They are now banned by international treaty.

95

95) The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily growing due to the actions of humans.

TRUE

96

96) Oxygen is the most common gas in the lower part of the Earth's atmosphere.

FALSE

97

97) The highest temperatures in the atmosphere are in the stratosphere.

FALSE

98

98) Most water vapor is contained in the lower 10 kilometers of the atmosphere.

TRUE

99

99) Scientists seem to agree that by banning chlorofluorocarbons, natural ozone will be restored within 5 years.

FALSE

100

100) Oceans heat and cool more slowly and to a lesser degree than do land masses.

TRUE

101

101) The international treaty banning chlorofluorocarbons has been rejected by most nations of the world.

FALSE

102

102) As a rule, warm currents are found off the west coasts of major continents.

FALSE

103

103) The vast majority of the mass of Earth's atmosphere lies within 20 kilometers of sea level.

TRUE

104

104) The troposphere is an atmospheric layer with a uniform depth in all places around the globe.

FALSE

105

105) The difference between weather and climate is that the latter is an accumulation of the former over an extended time period.

TRUE

106

106) In terms of volume, ozone is considered one of the main gases in the atmosphere.

FALSE

107

107) The maximum temperature in the atmosphere is in the thermosphere.

TRUE

108

108) The troposphere is the lowest in altitude of all of the divisions of the atmosphere.

TRUE

109

109) The trace gases helium and krypton are closely related to the physical processes causing the weather.

FALSE

110

110) In the thermosphere, the temperature is much higher than it is at Earth's surface.

TRUE

111

111) Most surface winds in the tropics are westerly.

FALSE

112

112) Auroral displays take place in the ionosphere.

TRUE

113

113) Ozone is an excellent absorber of ultraviolet solar radiation.

TRUE

114

114) The coldest atmospheric temperatures are attained in the troposphere.

FALSE

115

115) The RATE of pressure change diminishes with higher altitudes.

TRUE

116

116) Gases are evenly distributed throughout all levels of the atmosphere.

FALSE

117

117) In terms of weather and climate, neon is an important, variable gas in the atmosphere.

FALSE

118

118) Many scientists believe that higher levels of carbon dioxide will cause the lower atmosphere to warm up enough to cause global climatic changes.

TRUE

119

119) Above 80 kilometers, pressure is so low that it would be considered a vacuum at sea level.

TR

120

120) Weather is largely confined to the troposphere.

TRUE

121

121) The atmosphere's general circulation is one of the key climatic controls.

TRUE

122

122) Earth's atmosphere does not penetrate below the surface.

FALSE

123

123) Lower levels of air become compressed by the weight of the air above.

TRUE

124

124) Humans have helped cause the breakdown of the ozone layer through the use of aerosol sprays.

TRUE

125

125) The basic distribution of heat and cold over the Earth is mainly a function of its rotation.

FALSE

126

126) The stratosphere is the atmospheric layer which blends into interplanetary space.

FALSE

127

127) Air pressure is generally highest where the altitude is lowest.

TRUE

128

128) Clouds are composed of gases.

FALSE

129

129) Chlorofluorocarbons are of concern because they absorb ozone.

FALSE

130

130) The term "heterosphere" is synonymous with "ozonosphere."

FALSE

131

131) The top of the troposphere is found over a considerable range of altitude.

TRUE

132

132) "Los Angeles is dry in July" is a statement which is more closely related to weather than to climate.

FALSE

133

133) If only the troposphere existed, we would be adequately screened from ultraviolet radiation.

FALSE

134

134) Rain and snow frequently form in the stratosphere.

FALSE

135

135) Temperatures in the thermosphere are warmer than in the troposphere.

TRUE

136

136) Serious steps have been taken to reduce the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons to the atmosphere.

TRUE

137

137) Some particulates cause the decrease of solar radiation reaching the ground.

TRUE

138

138) Air temperature, pressure, and moisture content are heavily influenced by the climatic control of altitude.

TRUE

139

139) Ozone tends to be harmful when produced near Earth's surface.

TRUE

140

140) Some types of storms are prominent and frequent enough to be considered climatic controls.

TRUE

141

141) ________ is a substance significant to the atmosphere in that it is needed to make clouds and is intimately involved in the place-to-place transfer of energy.

Answer: Water vapor

142

142) This gas is more plentiful in the stratosphere than in any other layer.

Answer: ozone

143

143) ________ is a source of particulates for the atmosphere.

Answer: Various answers possible: soot from fires, pollen, sea salt, etc.

144

144) The ________ is a deep layer of electrified particles.

Answer: ionosphere

145

145) The word troposphere has a Greek root word which means ________.

Answer: "turning" sphere

146

146) Clouds, precipitation and "weather" are found in this atmospheric layer.

Answer: troposphere

147

147) ________ is one of the atmospheric thermal layers which includes the charged particles of the ionosphere.

Answer: Mesophere or Thermosphere

148

148) There are certain semipermanent features or attributes of our atmosphere which cause weather and climate patterns. They are are often corporately referred to as ________.

Answer: climatic controls

149

149) The side of a mountain range exposed to the wind is known as the ________ side.

Answer: windward

150

150) Name an atmospheric layer NOT based on temperature characteristics.

Answer: ionosphere, ozonosphere, heterosphere, or homosphere

151

151) ________ is added to the atmosphere by the decay of organic matter and the chemical breakdown of rocks.

Answer: Nitrogen

152

152) The atmospheric content of ________ has been increasing for the last century.

Answer: carbon dioxide

153

153) What is the purpose of the UV Index?

Answer: To inform the public about levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation.

154

154) The international treaty that bans the use of chlorofluorocarbons is the _______.

Answer: Montreal Protocol

155

155) ________ is one of the gases that has a constant concentration in the lower atmosphere but is considered a "trace" gas.

Answer: Neon, helium, krypton, hydrogen, or methane

156

161) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has concluded that some climate changes are due to increased emissions of heat-absorbing gases.

TRUE

157

162) CFCs are very stable (do not break down) in the lower atmosphere.

TRUE

158

163) Ozone depletion is more severe over Antarctica than other regions because of a winter phenomenon known as the
A) jet stream.
B) inversion layer.
C) greater amounts of water vapor in the air.
D) polar vortex.
E) polar ice shelf.

E) polar ice shelf.

159

164) On the Environmental Protection Agency's UV Index, values from 8-10 are labeled _____.

Answer: Very High

160

165) Which of the below is a SECONDARY pollutant?
A) photochemical smog
B) carbon dioxide
C) particulates
D) carbon monoxide
E) sulfur dioxide

A) photochemical smog

161

166) High levels of atmospheric pollutants near Earth's surface are associated with the occurrence of
A) quick air movement.
B) temperature inversions.
C) rain.
D) cyclones with bad weather.
E) high levels of CFCs in the stratosphere.

B) temperature inversions.

162

167) Coriolis effect is caused by rotation of the Earth.

TRUE

163

168) The Coriolis effect causes wind to move ________ of its original direction of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Answer: to the right

164

169) The Coriolis effect works on airplanes and bullets.

TRUE

165

170) Coriolis effect increases as ________.
A) latitude increases
B) the speed of wind decreases
C) one travels from the South Pole to the Equator
D) the Earth's rate of rotation decreases
E) altitude increases

A) latitude increases