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Flashcards in Exam 3 - Quizzes Deck (50):
1

The boreal forest in subarctic locations is the typical setting for...
A. Erosion
B. Gleization
C. Podzolization
D. Calcification
E. Laterization

C. Podzolization

2

A soil pH measuring 7 on the standard pH scale is considered...
A. Very acidic
B. Very alkaline
C. Unsuitable for agriculture
D. Too basic for minerals to form
E. Neutral, hence most suitable for most plants and microorganisms

E. Neutral, hence most suitable for most plants and microorganisms

3

The soil horizon compromising unconsolidated parent material beyond the reach of most roots is...
A. A horizon
B. C horizon
C. B horizon
D. O horizon
E. Z horizon

B. C horizon

4

The productive wheat lands of parts of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho are underlaid by soils incorporating volcanic ash and classified as...
A. Andisols
B. Mollisols
C. Inceptisols
D. Ultisols
E. Spodosols

A. Andisols

5

The soil forming factor which relates to the parent material composition is the ___ forming factor.
A. Climatic
B. Geologic
C. Metamorphic
D. Biological
E. Topographic

B. Geologic

6

Earthworms are important in soil processes due to...
A. Their length
B. Their ability to consume soil
C. Their excreted casts increasing amounts of nutrients
D. Their slime trails
E. Their ability to enhance biologic decay

C. Their excreted casts increasing amounts of nutrients

7

Regimes where soil-forming physical-chemical-biological processes occur are called...
A. Transformation regimes
B. Laterization regimes
C. Latholithic regimes
D. Pedogenic regimes
E. Aridisol regimes

D. Pedogenic regimes

8

___ are positively charged particles which are essential for soil fertility and plant growth.
A. Cations
B. Anions
C. Isotopes
D. Ions
E. Colloids

A. Cations

9

When the available soil water has been completely depleted, the ___ point has been reached.
A. Nonsaturation
B. Evaporation
C. Eluviation
D. Wilting
E. Leaching

D. Wilting

10

The weathered layer of loose inorganic material overlaying unfragmented rock is...
A. Clay
B. Separates
C. Horizons
D. Regolith
E. Peds

D. Regolith

11

Earth's crust floats on a layer of the mantle called the...
A. Oceanic crust
B. Lithosphere
C. Asthenosphere
D. Outer core
E. Inner core

C. Asthenosphere

12

Silicates combine the most common elements in the lithosphere which are...
A. Oxygen and silicon
B. Nitrogen and oxygen
C. Carbon and silicon
D. Hydrogen and oxygen
E. Nitrogen and silicon

A. Oxygen and silicon

13

Metamorphic rocks which have defined banding in their foliations are called...
A. Igneous
B. Sedimentary
C. Schist
D. Gneiss
E. Slates

D. Gneiss

14

The term relief refers to...
A. External geomorphic processes
B. The scale of a map
C. The map legend
D. Uniformitarianism
E. The distance between the highest and lowest points in a region

E. The distance between the highest and lowest points in a region

15

A change in a region's perspective depending on the observers point of view is an example of...
A. Patterns in the areal distribution of a phenomenon
B. Isostasy
C. Gneiss
D. Uniformitarianism
E. The scale of the observation

E. The scale of the observation

16

The largest shell (by volume) in the vertical structure of the earth is the...
A. Mantle
B. Inner core
C. Outer core
D. Crust
E. Moho

A. Mantle

17

The geographer's concern with earth's interior is restricted primarily to it's influence on...
A. Topography
B. Climate
C. Rock surface only
D. Vegetation
E. Human activities

A. Topography

18

The basic classification of rocks is based on...
A. Structure
B. Age
C. Appearance
D. Origin
E. Odor

D. Origin

19

Coal is an example of...
A. An organic sedimentary rock
B. A chemical sedimentary rock
C. An intrusive igneous rock
D. An extrusive igneous rock
E. A schist metamorphic rock

A. An organic sedimentary rock

20

When subjected to metamorphism, limestone becomes...
A. Gneiss
B. Basalt
C. Marble
D. Schist
E. Sandstone

C. Marble

21

The original continental mass containing all of the present continents prior to separation millions of years ago has been named...
A. Gondwanaland
B. Subduction
C. Laurasia
D. Pangaea
E. Ethiopia

D. Pangaea

22

The patterns of magnetic reversals recorded in the ocean floor have helped to establish the age of the oceanic crust. The youngest ocean floor is found...
A. At mid-ocean ridges
B. Away from mid-ocean ridges
C. Near the beach
D. Near large islands
E. Away from plate boundaries

A. At mid-ocean ridges

23

When plates collide along convergent boundaries, the dense oceanic plate melts as it is pushed down into the hot mantle in a process called...
A. Solifluction
B. Transfaction
C. Machination
D. Subduction
E. Liquefaction

D. Subduction

24

When crustal rocks are subjected to lateral compressional forces, they are slowly deformed by being bent in a process termed...
A. Subduction
B. Convection
C. Warping
D. Faulting
E. Folding

E. Folding

25

The most massive and amorphous form of igneous intrusion is a...
A. Sill
B. Lopolith
C. Batholith
D. Laccolith
E. Dike

C. Batholith

26

Lahars are...
A. Bombs associated with a volcanic eruption
B. An igneous intrusion
C. A type of magma
D. Mud flows associated with volcanic eruptions
E. Pyroclastic flows

D. Mud flows associated with volcanic eruptions

27

The primary difference between lava and magma is...
A. Temperature
B. Chemical composition
C. Flow speed
D. Pressure
E. Location

E. Location

28

What is the cause of the "Ring of Fire"?
A. Oceanic turbulence
B. Convergent boundaries
C. Accreted terrains
D. Calderas
E. Sills

B. Convergent boundaries

29

A fault that results from compression forcing an upthrown block over a downthrown block at a low angle is called a...
A. Normal fault
B. Reverse fault
C. Thrust fault
D. Strike-slip fault
E. Convergent fault

C. Thrust fault

30

Volcanoes that form in regions where there is no known plate convergence or divergence form from...
A. Accreted terranes
B. Plate tectonics
C. Mantle plumes
D. Pyroclastic flows
E. Fault-block mountains

C. Mantle plumes

31

Joints can be distinguished from faults in that...
A. There is no movement along joints
B. There is wider separation between two sides
C. You cannot tell the difference
D. Joints are not found in metamorphic rocks
E. Joints are found only in cold climates

A. There is no movement along joints

32

Water is a major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and...
A. Evaporates
B. Expands in volume
C. Turns brown
D. Stays in liquid form
E. Turns acidic

B. Expands in volume

33

The rotting of rock by the various types of chemical weathering takes place best in...
A. Polar regions
B. Upland montane forests
C. Humid regions
D. Limestone regions
E. Arid lands

C. Humid regions

34

___ involves the peeling of thin layers of stone off a large rock and might happen directly as a result of the removal of an overlying weight from the landscape.
A. Exfoliation
B. Slump
C. Mass wasting
D. Hydrolysis
E. Frost wedging

A. Exfoliation

35

The three atmospheric components of greatest importance to chemical weathering are...
A. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
B. Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide
C. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor
D. Water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide
E. Argon, helium, methane

C. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor

36

One possible biological weathering agent could include...
A. Oxidation
B. Carbonation
C. Exfoliation
D. Burrowing
E. Gleization

D. Burrowing

37

An example of a type of fall that occurs with mass wasting is a(n)...
A. Mudflow
B. Earthflow
C. Percolation
D. Talus cone
E. Soilflucation

D. Talus cone

38

One defining characteristic that differentiates falls from flows is...
A. Oxygen
B. Mass of material
C. Water
D. Chemical weathering
E. Carbon dioxide

C. Water

39

Gravity interacting with the freeze-thaw action of water results in...
A. Oxidation
B. Frost wedging
C. Laterization
D. Organic weathering
E. Falls

B. Frost wedging

40

The most numerous of rock openings are...
A. Microscopic
B. Faults
C. Lava vesicles
D. Joints
E. Solution cavities

A. Microscopic

41

A(n) ___ is a higher land above the the valley sides that separates adjacent valleys.
A. Gulley
B. Valley side
C. Rill
D. Interfluve
E. Levee

D. Interfluve

42

This drainage pattern looks like the veins on the underside of a leaf is called...
A. Trellis
B. Dendritic
C. Radial
D. Liquid form
E. Turns acidic

B. Dendritic

43

Stream terraces are sure evidence of...
A. Rejuvenation
B. Knickpoints
C. Recent volcanic activity
D. Entrenched meanders
E. Up warping

A. Rejuvenation

44

___ is an expression of the total load a stream can transport.
A. Capacity
B. Volume
C. Bedload
D. Function
E. Competence

A. Capacity

45

Streams lengthen their valleys mainly by ___ erosion.
A. Headward
B. Lateral
C. Forward
D. Downward
E. Alluvial

A. Headward

46

The slowed flow and deposit of sediment near the mouth of a stream often forms a...
A. Alluvium
B. Interfluve
C. Valley
D. Bedload
E. Delta

E. Delta

47

When the curvature in a stream flow on a flood plain is so large that a cutoff meander forms, a subsequent ___ forms.
A. Fluvial
B. Yazoo stream
C. Oxbow lake
D. Knickpoint
E. Cut bank

C. Oxbow lake

48

The primary difference between the Davis theory of landforms and the Penck theory of landforms is...
A. Age
B. Speed of the stream
C. Depth of the stream
D. Slope of the landform
E. Time

D. Slope of the landform

49

The major difference between a consequent stream and a subsequent stream is...
A. The depth of the water
B. Formation time
C. The elevation of the rock
D. The age of the water
E. The composition of the underlying rock

E. The composition of the underlying rock

50

Increasing headward erosion resulting in the merging of two streams is called...
A. Beheading
B. Stream capture
C. Stream compression
D. Mass wasting
E. Delta formation

B. Stream capture