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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Insolation and Temperature Deck (183):

1) The Sun's radiant energy reaches the Earth across space in approximately
A) 8 seconds.
B) 8 minutes.
C) 8 hours.
D) 8 days.
E) 8 months.

B) 8 minutes.


2) Most of the radiation incident upon the Earth falls within the ________ part of the spectrum.
A) short wave
B) long wave
C) infrared
D) x-ray
E) radar

A) short wave


3) The phenomenon of Rayleigh scattering is most closely associated with which visible electromagnetic wavelengths?
A) red
B) green
C) blue
D) violet
E) x-rays

C) blue


4) Which of the following is the most prolific producer of carbon dioxide?
A) The burning of fossil fuels.
B) The growth of plants.
C) The production of electricity from solar energy.
D) The production of nuclear energy.
E) The production of wind energy.

A) The burning of fossil fuels.


5) Cooling because of air expansion is called ________.
A) conduction
B) convection
C) advection
D) adiabatic cooling
E) absorption

D) adiabatic cooling


6) Which wavelengths are most poorly transmitted through the atmosphere?
A) longwaves
B) visible blue
C) shortwaves
D) solar radiation
E) radiation of 0.5 micrometer wavelengths

A) longwaves


7) The map of world average annual temperature range shows ________ to have the greatest range.
A) eastern Siberia
B) central Australia
C) northern Africa
D) southern South America
E) Central Europe

A) eastern Siberia


8) Which substance is the best transmitter of solar energy?
A) rock
B) soil
C) air
D) murky water
E) They are all approximately equal in transmissivity.

C) air


9) The higher latitudes receive much less intense insolation than tropical zones because of differences in ________.
A) albedo
B) the Sun's angle of incidence
C) greenhouse effect
D) ocean's specific heat
E) water's transmissivity

B) the Sun's angle of incidence


10) Heat transferred laterally in the atmosphere by horizontal wind movements is a process called ________.
A) compression
B) reflection
C) absorption
D) advection
E) transmission

D) advection


11) In the electromagnetic spectrum, visible light occupies the band between 0.4 and 0.7 ________.
A) millibars
B) micrometers
C) Kelvins
D) meters
E) feet

B) micrometers


12) The solar energy reaching Earth travels a distance of ________ million kilometers.
A) 1
B) 8
C) 30
D) 150
E) 567

D) 150


13) ________ objects radiate in shorter wavelengths than ________ objects.
A) Red, green
B) Big, small
C) Liquid, solid
D) Tall, short
E) Hot, cold

E) Hot, cold


14) The Earth as a body has a yearly net loss of energy at the top of the atmosphere north of ________ degrees north latitude.
A) 10
B) 28
C) 56
D) 66.5
E) 90

B) 28


15) The only major country still using the Fahrenheit scale for temperature determination is ________.
A) U.S.A.
B) Canada
C) Germany
D) Brazil
E) Iraq

A) U.S.A.


16) The only major ocean current in the world whose flow is unbroken by any continent is ________.
A) North Pacific drift
B) Japan current
C) West Wind drift
D) east Australian current
E) Humboldt current

C) West Wind drift


17) The result of a horizontal cold air intrusion into a warmer air zone produces a(n) ________.
A) radiational inversion
B) advection inversion
C) subsidence inversion
D) isotherm
E) lapse rate

B) advection inversion


18) A(n) ________ emits the maximum amount of radiation possible, at every wavelength, for its temperature.
A) blackbody radiator
B) isotherm
C) Celsius
D) albedo
E) Kelvin

A) blackbody radiator


19) The albedo of the Earth system has been determined to be ________ percent.
A) 2
B) 15
C) 31
D) 75
E) 100

C) 31


20) In terms of running the Earth's atmospheric processes, the significant energy comes from the Sun and ________.
A) the moon
B) the next closest star
C) reflection from Venus
D) Earth's interior
E) no other source

E) no other source


21) Earth's reradiation to space consists mainly of ________.
A) longwave rays
B) gamma rays
C) shortwave rays
D) ultraviolet rays
E) x-rays

A) longwave rays


22) The specific heat of water is greater than that of land. This means
A) water is warmer than land.
B) land is warmer than water.
C) water cools more slowly than does land.
D) land cools more slowly than does water.
E) none of the above

C) water cools more slowly than does land.


23) The energy emitted from the Sun is a product of ________.
A) fission
B) fusion
C) radioactive decay
D) geysers
E) none of the above

B) fusion


24) Adiabatic processes cause cooling by ________.
A) conduction
B) convection
C) radiation
D) decompression
E) insertion

D) decompression


25) At 0 Kelvins,
A) water boils.
B) ice forms.
C) ice melts.
D) water freezes.
E) molecular motion stops.

E) molecular motion stops.


26) Advection is a(n) ________ wind movement.
A) horizontal
B) vertical
C) compressional
D) convectional
E) expansive

A) horizontal


27) The longest of all visible light waves are ________.
A) violet
B) red
C) green
D) yellow
E) ultraviolet

B) red


28) Only ________ of the Sun's energy reaches the Earth.
A) 2 billionth
B) 1 billionth
C) 2 millionth
D) 1 millionth
E) 1 trillionth

A) 2 billionth


29) Radiation from the Earth is mostly absorbed in the lower troposphere and ________ back towards Earth.
A) reradiated
B) scattered
C) conducted
D) convected
E) reflected

A) reradiated


30) About ________ percent of the total insolation is directly absorbed by the air.
A) 94
B) 64
C) 24
D) 14
E) 0.4

C) 24


31) Which of the following phenomena is NOT closely associated with atmospheric water vapor?
A) presence of latent heat
B) absorption of longwave energy
C) the greenhouse effect
D) absorption of terrestrial reradiation
E) adiabatic warming

E) adiabatic warming


32) For the most part the atmosphere is heated directly from the ________.
A) Sun
B) Earth's surface
C) storms
D) cyclones
E) reflection from the Moon

B) Earth's surface


33) In the Northern Hemisphere about ________ percent of the surface is land.
A) .039
B) 13.9
C) 39
D) 76
E) 91

C) 39


34) In the Southern Hemisphere about ________ percent of the surface is land.
A) .019
B) 1.9
C) 19
D) 55
E) 78

C) 19


35) "Jiggling" is a description of the motion of
A) chemical energy.
B) atoms.
C) electromagnetic radiation.
D) x-rays.
E) scales used to measure Kelvins.

B) atoms.


36) A temperature inversion is mainly an inversion of the ________.
A) isotherms
B) normal lapse rate
C) Coriolis effect
D) gyres
E) topography

B) normal lapse rate


37) The extremely low surface temperatures in the Antarctic in July (Southern Hemisphere winter) clearly demonstrate the influence of ________.
A) adiabatic cooling
B) ocean currents
C) greater cooling of land than water
D) lapse rates
E) aphelion

C) greater cooling of land than water


38) Solar energy and terrestrial reradiation are usually measured in units of length called ________.
A) langleys
B) calories
C) micrometers
D) nanometers
E) isotherms

C) micrometers


39) The absorption of longwave radiation in the atmosphere is popularly called
A) Coriolis effect.
B) scattering.
C) the greenhouse effect.
D) advection.
E) the carbon dioxide effect.

C) the greenhouse effect.


40) The process of evaporation of liquid water to vapor releases stored energy called
A) convection.
B) latent heat.
C) advection.
D) compression.
E) conduction.

B) latent heat.


41) With respect to absorption of solar radiation, it is understood that objects of ________ are the most efficient absorbers.
A) dark color
B) light color
C) stone
D) plastic
E) snow

A) dark color


42) Sea surface temperatures sensed by satellite allows us to study
A) ultraviolet energy.
B) the greenhouse effect.
C) day lengths.
D) the hygrometer.
E) El Niño.

E) El Niño.


43) The circumpolar ocean current in the Southern Hemisphere is the ________.
A) Brazil current
B) Humboldt current
C) West Wind drift
D) Benguela current
E) Gulf Stream

C) West Wind drift


44) The reddish tint of the Sun at sunset results from ________.
A) scattering
B) condition
C) advection
D) reflection
E) albedo

A) scattering


45) The atmosphere is heated, for the most part, from ________.
A) above
B) below
C) the stratosphere
D) the thermosphere
E) none of the above

B) below


46) The freezing point of water is ________ on the Kelvin scale.
A) 32
B) 0
C) 273
D) 60
E) -40

C) 273


47) Most oceanic gyres are centered at ________ latitude.
A) 3°
B) 30°
C) 53°
D) 66°
E) 90°

B) 30°


48) Which of the following is closely related to a surface temperature inversion?
A) heating during the daytime
B) cold-air drainage
C) albedo
D) low pressure
E) significant vertical mixing

B) cold-air drainage


49) Cool ocean currents deflect global Earth surface isotherms ________.
A) poleward
B) towards the Prime Meridian
C) equatorward
D) towards the closest continent
E) towards the ocean bottom

C) equatorward


50) In terms of long-term temperature increases in the atmosphere, which of the following is TRUE?
A) Average global temperature has risen 5.0°C in the last 100 years.
B) No changes have been observed in the 21st century.
C) The greenhouse effect has never been shown to be real.
D) Increases in greenhouse gases have been observed.
E) It appears that we can readily curb the carbon dioxide problem.

D) Increases in greenhouse gases have been observed.


51) Vertical motion in air causes cooling of the lifted air. This phenomenon is governed by the ________ effect.
A) Coriolis
B) albedo
C) inversion
D) adiabatic
E) latitudinal

D) adiabatic


52) Which of the following electromagnetic wavelengths are LONGEST?
A) microwaves
B) visible energy
C) ultraviolet energy
D) cosmic rays
E) infrared energy

A) microwaves


53) The current observed increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is attributable to
A) human activities.
B) earthquakes.
C) volcanoes.
D) the end of the "Ice Age".
E) grass fires set by lightning.

A) human activities.


54) The radiation coming from the Sun is most plentiful at .5 micrometers. The most plentiful radiation coming from the Earth is at ________ micrometer(s).
A) 0
B) 0.5
C) 2
D) 5
E) 10

E) 10


55) Which of the following does NOT refer to the transfer of electromagnetic radiation?
A) transmission
B) reflection
C) absorption
D) scattering
E) conduction

E) conduction


56) In the heating of the atmosphere, which amount of energy is SMALLEST?
A) solar radiation received at the surface
B) the albedo of the Earth system
C) solar radiation absorbed by ozone
D) solar radiation entering the atmosphere
E) solar radiation absorbed by the atmosphere

C) solar radiation absorbed by ozone


57) The belt of maximum solar energy input to Earth swings back and forth
A) between 0 through 90 degrees latitude.
B) through the middle latitudes.
C) through the area of energy deficit.
D) through the tropics.
E) through a total of 5 degrees of latitude.

D) through the tropics.


58) On maps of solar energy receipt, the main interruption to a strictly latitudinal pattern is
A) altitude.
B) cloud cover.
C) daylength.
D) air pollution.
E) angle of incidence.

B) cloud cover.


59) Which of the following would NOT be a reason why land heats faster than water?
A) the presence of clouds
B) lower specific heat
C) no mobility
D) less transmissivity
E) less evaporation

A) the presence of clouds


60) Ocean gyres flow ________ in the Southern Hemisphere.
A) clockwise
B) counterclockwise
C) northward
D) southward
E) towards the Equator

B) counterclockwise


61) On the equatorward side of each subtropical gyre is found the
A) Gulf Stream.
B) California Current.
C) West Wind Drift.
D) Equatorial Current.
E) Peru Current.

D) Equatorial Current.


62) Major surface currents are set in motion by
A) the wakes of ships.
B) salinity differences.
C) winds.
D) density differences.
E) shapes of coastlines.

C) winds.


63) The normal vertical temperature gradient (average lapse rate) in the troposphere is CLOSEST to how many degrees Celsius per 1,000 meters?
A) 1.5
B) 3.5
C) 6.5
D) 16.5
E) 32.5

C) 6.5


64) Subsidence inversions are most closely associated with
A) the presence of cities.
B) low-pressure storms.
C) high-pressure conditions.
D) the intertropical convergence.
E) the rising of air.

C) high-pressure conditions.


65) Although several factors are involved, the main factor controlling the distribution of annual average temperature for Earth as a whole is
A) longitude.
B) latitude.
C) altitude.
D) land/water contrasts.
E) ocean currents.

B) latitude.


66) An isotherm bends towards the Equator as it passes from the ocean over the land. One can infer
A) the season is summer.
B) the season is fall.
C) the season is winter.
D) the season is spring.
E) it is warmer over the land than the ocean.

C) the season is winter.


67) In an inversion, which is true?
A) Wind speeds are very high.
B) Large storms tend to be formed.
C) Air rises quickly.
D) The temperature decreases with altitude.
E) The temperature increases with altitude.

E) The temperature increases with altitude.


68) The boiling point of water at sea level is 100°C, which is the same as ________ Kelvin.
A) 0
B) 32
C) 212
D) 373
E) 410

D) 373


69) A yearly net surplus of energy is experienced for all latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere SOUTH of which latitude?
A) 0°N
B) 8°N
C) 28°N
D) 58°N
E) 88°N

C) 28°N


70) On the average, sunlight received on the Earth's surface is only ________ as strong as that received at the edge of the atmosphere.
A) 1/100
B) 1/10
C) 1/4
D) 1/2
E) 1/8

D) 1/2


71) The basic direction of flow of the equatorial counter current is
A) to the east.
B) to the west.
C) to the northeast.
D) to the southwest.
E) to the south.

A) to the east.


72) The Sun
A) is a relatively large star.
B) generates energy through fission.
C) is the closest galaxy to Earth.
D) actually plays a minor role in energizing Earth's life forms.
E) is a star of average size.

E) is a star of average size.


73) In a single second, the Earth receives as much energy from the Sun as
A) it reradiates in a week.
B) humans use in a century.
C) humans have used since the beginning of civilization.
D) all powerplants generate in a week.
E) Earth has produced by volcanic eruptions since the beginning of Earth history.

D) all powerplants generate in a week.


74) The speed of light is closest to ________ kilometers per second.
A) 3,000
B) 30,000
C) 300,000
D) 3,000,000
E) 30,000,000

C) 300,000


75) Between 0.7 micrometers and 1,000 micrometers are the ________ wavelengths.
A) microwave
B) visible
C) infrared
D) ultraviolet
E) x-ray

C) infrared


76) For atmospheric radiation, ________ micrometers is considered to be the boundary between "shortwaves" and "longwaves."
A) 1
B) 4
C) 10
D) 40
E) 100

B) 4


77) Almost all terrestrial radiation can be considered to be ________ and almost all solar radiation can be considered to be ________.
A) shortwave, longwave
B) shortwave, shortwave
C) longwave, longwave
D) longwave, shortwave
E) heat, light

D) longwave, shortwave


78) The most plentiful terrestrial wavelengths are 20 times ________ than solar wavelengths.
A) more powerful
B) longer
C) faster
D) slower
E) shorter

B) longer


79) Which two of the following terms describe processes which are quite similar?
A) absorption and transmission
B) scattering and reflection
C) transmission and convection
D) absorption and adiabatic heating
E) radiation and conduction

B) scattering and reflection


80) What process explains the slow rate of snowmelt on a sunny day when the air temperature is above freezing?
A) conduction
B) transmission
C) reflection
D) advection
E) convection

C) reflection


81) Given land/water heating contrasts, one would expect to find the coldest winter temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere
A) near the North Pole.
B) in Siberia (70°N).
C) in southern Canada (50°N).
D) in Oklahoma (35°N).
E) over the oceans off of Alaska.

B) in Siberia (70°N).


82) Which satellite system is used to monitor Earth's radiation budget?
C) Landsat



83) In the 20th century, the increased greenhouse effect raised global atmospheric temperatures by
A) less than 1°C.
B) 5°C.
C) 20°C.
D) 40°C.
E) an insignificant amount.

A) less than 1°C.


84) The main culprit for global warming appears to be
A) carbon dioxide.
B) nitrous oxides.
C) chlorofluorocarbons.
D) methane.
E) inaccurate computer models.

A) carbon dioxide.


85) Compared to other substances in the Earth system, air is considered ________ conductor of energy.
A) an excellent
B) a better than average
C) an average
D) a poorer than average
E) a very poor

E) a very poor


86) Where on Earth does one expect the greatest latitudinal displacement of isotherms between January and July?
A) over the middle latitude oceans
B) over the equatorial oceans
C) over the high latitude continents
D) over the equatorial continents
E) over the high latitude oceans

C) over the high latitude continents


87) Solar energy is also known as ________.
A) power
B) insolation
C) conduction
D) convection
E) longwave energy

B) insolation


88) Which two terms are NOT closely related?
A) reflection, scattering
B) reflection, albedo
C) albedo, longwaves
D) longwaves, atmospheric absorption
E) atmospheric absorption, ultraviolet energy

C) albedo, longwaves


89) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Earth emits more energy per area than the Sun.
B) The Sun essentially functions as a blackbody.
C) The Sun is a type of Black Hole.
D) Earth radiates energy to space.
E) The atmosphere absorbs more energy directly from the Sun than it reflects to space.

B) The Sun essentially functions as a blackbody.


90) In which of the below does electromagnetic radiation change its wavelengths?
A) reflection
B) scattering
C) transmission
D) convection
E) absorption and emission

E) absorption and emission


91) The MAIN source of atmosphere heating is from the
A) absorption of ultraviolet energy from the Sun.
B) conduction of energy from the Earth.
C) convection of energy from the Earth.
D) reradiation of energy from the Earth.
E) absorption of insolation.

D) reradiation of energy from the Earth.


92) More than three-fourths of all sunshine falls on ________ as it reaches Earth's surface.
A) water
B) soil
C) continents
D) rocks
E) clouds

A) water


93) Which of the following is TRUE?
A) Earth's energy budget is perfectly balanced.
B) Earth's energy budget is unbalanced by latitude.
C) Earth's energy budget is vertically unbalanced.
D) Earth's energy budget is the cause of all weather.
E) all of the above

E) all of the above


94) The Sun is directly on the horizon. The angle of incidence
A) is 0°.
B) is 45°.
C) is 90°.
D) is 180°.
E) cannot be calculated without additional information.

A) is 0°.


95) At which locations is solar energy most concentrated?
A) where the Sun is closest to the curved Earth surface
B) anywhere on Earth, if it is the perihelion
C) at places where the angle of incidence is 90°
D) at places where the angle of incidence is 0°
E) where the atmosphere has the most water vapor

C) at places where the angle of incidence is 90°


96) Where are seasonal changes in day length least important?
A) middle latitudes
B) high latitudes
C) tropical latitudes
D) low altitudes
E) near oceans

C) tropical latitudes


97) Emission of energy is most closely associated with ________.
A) reflection
B) scattering
C) radiation
D) latent heat
E) conduction

C) radiation


98) Methane is one of the "greenhouse gases". ________ is (are) a primary source of release of methane into the atmosphere.
A) The use of aerosol sprays
B) Grazing animals
C) Automobiles
D) The burning of coal at power plants
E) The breakdown of ozone

B) Grazing animals


99) Dallas, Texas is in the continental interior. San Diego, California is on the ocean. Which of the following is true?
A) San Diego's wintertime temperatures should be lower than Dallas'.
B) Dallas' summertime temperatures should be lower than San Diego's.
C) There should not be much temperature difference if their latitudes are similar.
D) There should not be much temperature difference if their longitudes are similar.
E) Dallas should have a larger yearly range of temperature than San Diego.

E) Dallas should have a larger yearly range of temperature than San Diego.


100) Albedo is energy ________ from an object as compared to the original amount of energy that struck the object.
A) emitted
B) reflected
C) conducted
D) advected
E) convected

B) reflected


101) Which of the following is a "greenhouse gas" (natural or human-induced)?
A) carbon dioxide
B) methane
C) ozone
D) chlorofluorocarbons
E) all of the above

E) all of the above


102) As the angle of incidence becomes less, the
A) Sun appears higher in the sky.
B) distance from Earth to Sun increases.
C) amount of energy coming from the Sun decreases.
D) tilt of Earth's axis increases.
E) less concentrated solar energy becomes.

E) less concentrated solar energy becomes.


103) Which of the following is a transfer of energy between substances?
A) translational kinetic energy
B) rotation
C) heat
D) internal energy
E) angle of incidence

C) heat


104) Which of the following is the proper term for the average kinetic energy of all the molecules of a substance?
A) conduction
B) electromagnetic radiation
C) heat
D) wavelengths
E) inertia

C) heat


105) Because of the specific shapes of the individual continents
A) gyres exist.
B) ocean currents exist.
C) warm Pacific Ocean water is prevented from entering the Arctic Ocean.
D) cold Arctic Ocean water is prevented from entering the Atlantic Ocean.
E) there is no subtropical gyre in the South Atlantic.

C) warm Pacific Ocean water is prevented from entering the Arctic Ocean.


106) Overall, the Southern Hemisphere has a milder winter than the Northern Hemisphere because
A) the days are shorter in the Northern Hemisphere.
B) there is more water in the Southern Hemisphere.
C) ocean currents are almost non-existent in the Southern Hemisphere.
D) the Sun is closest to Earth during the Southern Hemisphere winter.
E) all of the above

B) there is more water in the Southern Hemisphere.


107) Northern Africa, southwestern Asia, and southwestern North America experience what in common?
A) the hottest summers on Earth
B) the rainiest warm seasons on Earth
C) many cloudy days because of the nearby Equator
D) the largest winter-to-summer temperature ranges on Earth
E) the presence of warm ocean currents

A) the hottest summers on Earth


108) From the climatic records it is clear
A) a runaway greenhouse effect threatens to kill life on Earth.
B) the scientific notion of global warming seems to be in error.
C) Earth's temperatures have actually decreased substantially in the last 100 years.
D) Humans created the greenhouse effect.
E) there has been warming in the last 100 years.

E) there has been warming in the last 100 years.


109) The text's map of the average daily insolation received in the 48 coterminous United States shows the ________ to have the highest values.
A) northwest
B) northeast
C) central
D) southwest
E) southeast

D) southwest


110) Water is highly mobile. This means that the solar radiation incident upon it will
A) be radiated to the North Pole.
B) be disbursed both broadly and deeply.
C) act similarly to the insolation incident on land.
D) be uninfluenced by latent heat.
E) be traveling approximately twice as far as the insolation incident upon the land.

D) be uninfluenced by latent heat.


111) Which set of locations is associated with a striking, persistent upwelling of cold water to the ocean surface?
A) the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
B) the middle of the Pacific Ocean
C) middle latitude eastern coasts of continents
D) subtropical coasts of continents
E) polar coasts

D) subtropical coasts of continents


112) A calorie is defined as a unit of energy needed to heat 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.



113) The solar constant has a value of 1372 watts per square centimeter per minute.



114) Visible light comprises a large part of the electromagnetic energy received by Earth.



115) The ability of a molecule to pass through the atmosphere is called scattering.



116) The horizontal movement of heat in the atmosphere is advection.



117) In the low latitudes, the Earth receives a net gain of radiant energy in the tropical latitudes.



118) Lines connecting points of equal pressure are isotherms.



119) Precipitation is an unlikely occurrence during an inversion.



120) The general circulation of the oceans is a major mechanism for the transfer of energy from the tropics to the poles.



121) The hottest parts of the Earth's surface are found in the equatorial zone.



122) At the top of the atmosphere at the North Pole during an entire year, more energy leaves than enters.



123) 0 Kelvin is is much warmer than 0 Celsius.



124) Visible light makes up most parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.



125) Expansion of volume occurs in rising air.



126) The Earth's land surface is a good heat absorber but not a good conductor.



127) In the middle and high latitudes, there are no significant seasonal variations in the duration of sunlight.



128) Latent heat is involved in the process of evaporation.



129) The Fahrenheit scale of temperature is still the most widely used scale in the world.



130) The position of the major oceanic gyres is caused by the major atmospheric circulations.



131) Evidence suggests anthropogenic factors are associated with global warming.



132) Equatorward-moving currents on the eastern sides of oceanic basins carry cool water toward the Equator.



133) The vertical distribution of temperature in the troposphere is essentially unchanging over time.



134) Summer temperatures are generally higher over continents than over oceans.



135) The tropics are characterized by wide variations between temperatures of seasons.



136) Albedo is the same phenomenon as advection.



137) Adiabatic warming takes place by compression in descending air.



138) If an object is a good absorber of energy, it is likely to be a poor reflector.



139) Air is an excellent conductor of heat.



140) High angle solar energy will traverse a shorter course through the atmosphere than low angle solar energy.



141) Convection is associated with vertical air movements.



142) Winter cold is the result of limited insolation and of the brevity of the daylight period.



143) The specific heat of land is about five times that of water.



144) In a continental climate one would expect higher winter temperatures than in a maritime climate.



145) Evidence clearly suggests global warming is taking place.



146) Energy and heat are synonymous concepts.



147) Conduction comes about through molecular collision.



148) About 75 percent of terrestrial radiation escapes directly back to space.



149) The distance of passage of a solar beam through the atmosphere is determined by the angle of incidence.



150) Solar radiation is most plentiful in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.



151) Solar radiation striking Earth's surface is characterized as "longwave".



152) Shorter electromagnetic wavelengths are more easily scattered than longer ones.



153) The "greenhouse effect" doesn't work the same way in a greenhouse as it does in the atmosphere.



154) Convection is more efficient in a liquid as compared to a solid.



155) Approximately 95 percent of terrestrial radiation is radiated in shortwaves from the surface directly to space.



156) In general, the annual temperature ranges are greater in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere.



157) Coriolis effect sets ocean currents in motion.



158) Upwelling is associated with equatorward-flowing currents.



159) Over the long run, all energy the Earth receives from the Sun is returned to space.



160) All portions of the top of the Earth's atmosphere intercept a uniform amount of solar radiation.



161) The transparency and transmissivity of the atmosphere is uniform over the globe.



162) Ocean gyres rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.



163) Ultraviolet energy is the name for electromagnetic wavelengths measuring from 10 to 15 micrometers.



164) "Convection" means heat is ________.

Answer: being transferred vertically


165) Kelvins can be converted to degrees Celsius by adding ________ to the Celsius reading.

Answer: 273


166) ________ is an atmospheric substance which is one of the substances causing the greenhouse effect.

Answer: Water vapor, carbon dioxide, dust, etc.


167) In the ________ latitudes, more energy leaves the top of the atmosphere than is received at the top of the atmosphere during a year.

Answer: polar and/or upper middle


168) A ________ climate is known for lesser seasonal extremes of temperature than its land counterpart.

Answer: maritime or oceanic


169) The ________ temperature scale has 100 units between freezing and boiling.

Answer: Celsius Scale


170) The world's main ocean currents are energized by the wind, but are deflected by the Earth's rotation. This deflection is known as ________.

Answer: Coriolis effect


171) On long, cold winter nights with clear, calm skies, a ________ inversion of temperature will occur.

Answer: radiational


172) The ________ is the season in which the Northern and Southern Hemispheres have their long-term (average) isotherms packed most closely together on maps.

Answer: winter


173) The steady, incoming solar radiation received at the top of the atmosphere is named the ________.

Answer: solar constant


174) The term "atmospheric effect" has been suggested as a more proper substitute for the widely used term "________".

Answer: greenhouse effect


175) The distance a ray of sunlight travels through the atmosphere is commonly referred to as the ________.

Answer: path length


181) "Western intensification" is a term referring to
A) ocean current off the east coasts of continents.
B) insolation received on the western portions of continents.
C) water moving towards the Equator.
D) upwelling.
E) water moving opposite to Coriolis effect.

A) ocean current off the east coasts of continents.


182) Approximately 15 percent of the world's electrical power is provided by solar energy.



183) Alternating layers of ________ semiconductors make up photovoltaic cells.
A) "c" and "d"
B) "f" and "g"
C) "h" and "j"
D) "p" and "n"
E) "x" and "z"

D) "p" and "n"


184) Presently, photovoltaic cells are up to ________ percent efficient converters of solar energy to electricity.
A) 1
B) 10
C) 25
D) 50
E) 75

E) 75


185) To effectively use the solar resource over 24 hours, solar electrical systems must employ ________.

Answer: batteries


186) Available solar radiation is usually measured in BTUs.



187) Nighttime outgoing longwave radiation is usually greatest over ________ regions of Earth.

Answer: desert


188) At Earth's surface, total absorbed solar radiation is greatest in the
A) polar latitudes
B) middle latitude
C) mountain regions
D) subtropical latitudes
E) equatorial latitudes

D) subtropical latitudes