Chapter 4 - Insolation and Temperature Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Insolation and Temperature Deck (183):
1

1) The Sun's radiant energy reaches the Earth across space in approximately
A) 8 seconds.
B) 8 minutes.
C) 8 hours.
D) 8 days.
E) 8 months.

B) 8 minutes.

2

2) Most of the radiation incident upon the Earth falls within the ________ part of the spectrum.
A) short wave
B) long wave
C) infrared
D) x-ray
E) radar

A) short wave

3

3) The phenomenon of Rayleigh scattering is most closely associated with which visible electromagnetic wavelengths?
A) red
B) green
C) blue
D) violet
E) x-rays

C) blue

4

4) Which of the following is the most prolific producer of carbon dioxide?
A) The burning of fossil fuels.
B) The growth of plants.
C) The production of electricity from solar energy.
D) The production of nuclear energy.
E) The production of wind energy.

A) The burning of fossil fuels.

5

5) Cooling because of air expansion is called ________.
A) conduction
B) convection
C) advection
D) adiabatic cooling
E) absorption

D) adiabatic cooling

6

6) Which wavelengths are most poorly transmitted through the atmosphere?
A) longwaves
B) visible blue
C) shortwaves
D) solar radiation
E) radiation of 0.5 micrometer wavelengths

A) longwaves

7

7) The map of world average annual temperature range shows ________ to have the greatest range.
A) eastern Siberia
B) central Australia
C) northern Africa
D) southern South America
E) Central Europe

A) eastern Siberia

8

8) Which substance is the best transmitter of solar energy?
A) rock
B) soil
C) air
D) murky water
E) They are all approximately equal in transmissivity.

C) air

9

9) The higher latitudes receive much less intense insolation than tropical zones because of differences in ________.
A) albedo
B) the Sun's angle of incidence
C) greenhouse effect
D) ocean's specific heat
E) water's transmissivity

B) the Sun's angle of incidence

10

10) Heat transferred laterally in the atmosphere by horizontal wind movements is a process called ________.
A) compression
B) reflection
C) absorption
D) advection
E) transmission

D) advection

11

11) In the electromagnetic spectrum, visible light occupies the band between 0.4 and 0.7 ________.
A) millibars
B) micrometers
C) Kelvins
D) meters
E) feet

B) micrometers

12

12) The solar energy reaching Earth travels a distance of ________ million kilometers.
A) 1
B) 8
C) 30
D) 150
E) 567

D) 150

13

13) ________ objects radiate in shorter wavelengths than ________ objects.
A) Red, green
B) Big, small
C) Liquid, solid
D) Tall, short
E) Hot, cold

E) Hot, cold

14

14) The Earth as a body has a yearly net loss of energy at the top of the atmosphere north of ________ degrees north latitude.
A) 10
B) 28
C) 56
D) 66.5
E) 90

B) 28

15

15) The only major country still using the Fahrenheit scale for temperature determination is ________.
A) U.S.A.
B) Canada
C) Germany
D) Brazil
E) Iraq

A) U.S.A.

16

16) The only major ocean current in the world whose flow is unbroken by any continent is ________.
A) North Pacific drift
B) Japan current
C) West Wind drift
D) east Australian current
E) Humboldt current

C) West Wind drift

17

17) The result of a horizontal cold air intrusion into a warmer air zone produces a(n) ________.
A) radiational inversion
B) advection inversion
C) subsidence inversion
D) isotherm
E) lapse rate

B) advection inversion

18

18) A(n) ________ emits the maximum amount of radiation possible, at every wavelength, for its temperature.
A) blackbody radiator
B) isotherm
C) Celsius
D) albedo
E) Kelvin

A) blackbody radiator

19

19) The albedo of the Earth system has been determined to be ________ percent.
A) 2
B) 15
C) 31
D) 75
E) 100

C) 31

20

20) In terms of running the Earth's atmospheric processes, the significant energy comes from the Sun and ________.
A) the moon
B) the next closest star
C) reflection from Venus
D) Earth's interior
E) no other source

E) no other source

21

21) Earth's reradiation to space consists mainly of ________.
A) longwave rays
B) gamma rays
C) shortwave rays
D) ultraviolet rays
E) x-rays

A) longwave rays

22

22) The specific heat of water is greater than that of land. This means
A) water is warmer than land.
B) land is warmer than water.
C) water cools more slowly than does land.
D) land cools more slowly than does water.
E) none of the above

C) water cools more slowly than does land.

23

23) The energy emitted from the Sun is a product of ________.
A) fission
B) fusion
C) radioactive decay
D) geysers
E) none of the above

B) fusion

24

24) Adiabatic processes cause cooling by ________.
A) conduction
B) convection
C) radiation
D) decompression
E) insertion

D) decompression

25

25) At 0 Kelvins,
A) water boils.
B) ice forms.
C) ice melts.
D) water freezes.
E) molecular motion stops.

E) molecular motion stops.

26

26) Advection is a(n) ________ wind movement.
A) horizontal
B) vertical
C) compressional
D) convectional
E) expansive

A) horizontal

27

27) The longest of all visible light waves are ________.
A) violet
B) red
C) green
D) yellow
E) ultraviolet

B) red

28

28) Only ________ of the Sun's energy reaches the Earth.
A) 2 billionth
B) 1 billionth
C) 2 millionth
D) 1 millionth
E) 1 trillionth

A) 2 billionth

29

29) Radiation from the Earth is mostly absorbed in the lower troposphere and ________ back towards Earth.
A) reradiated
B) scattered
C) conducted
D) convected
E) reflected

A) reradiated

30

30) About ________ percent of the total insolation is directly absorbed by the air.
A) 94
B) 64
C) 24
D) 14
E) 0.4

C) 24

31

31) Which of the following phenomena is NOT closely associated with atmospheric water vapor?
A) presence of latent heat
B) absorption of longwave energy
C) the greenhouse effect
D) absorption of terrestrial reradiation
E) adiabatic warming

E) adiabatic warming

32

32) For the most part the atmosphere is heated directly from the ________.
A) Sun
B) Earth's surface
C) storms
D) cyclones
E) reflection from the Moon

B) Earth's surface

33

33) In the Northern Hemisphere about ________ percent of the surface is land.
A) .039
B) 13.9
C) 39
D) 76
E) 91

C) 39

34

34) In the Southern Hemisphere about ________ percent of the surface is land.
A) .019
B) 1.9
C) 19
D) 55
E) 78

C) 19

35

35) "Jiggling" is a description of the motion of
A) chemical energy.
B) atoms.
C) electromagnetic radiation.
D) x-rays.
E) scales used to measure Kelvins.

B) atoms.

36

36) A temperature inversion is mainly an inversion of the ________.
A) isotherms
B) normal lapse rate
C) Coriolis effect
D) gyres
E) topography

B) normal lapse rate

37

37) The extremely low surface temperatures in the Antarctic in July (Southern Hemisphere winter) clearly demonstrate the influence of ________.
A) adiabatic cooling
B) ocean currents
C) greater cooling of land than water
D) lapse rates
E) aphelion

C) greater cooling of land than water

38

38) Solar energy and terrestrial reradiation are usually measured in units of length called ________.
A) langleys
B) calories
C) micrometers
D) nanometers
E) isotherms

C) micrometers

39

39) The absorption of longwave radiation in the atmosphere is popularly called
A) Coriolis effect.
B) scattering.
C) the greenhouse effect.
D) advection.
E) the carbon dioxide effect.

C) the greenhouse effect.

40

40) The process of evaporation of liquid water to vapor releases stored energy called
A) convection.
B) latent heat.
C) advection.
D) compression.
E) conduction.

B) latent heat.

41

41) With respect to absorption of solar radiation, it is understood that objects of ________ are the most efficient absorbers.
A) dark color
B) light color
C) stone
D) plastic
E) snow

A) dark color

42

42) Sea surface temperatures sensed by satellite allows us to study
A) ultraviolet energy.
B) the greenhouse effect.
C) day lengths.
D) the hygrometer.
E) El Niño.

E) El Niño.

43

43) The circumpolar ocean current in the Southern Hemisphere is the ________.
A) Brazil current
B) Humboldt current
C) West Wind drift
D) Benguela current
E) Gulf Stream

C) West Wind drift

44

44) The reddish tint of the Sun at sunset results from ________.
A) scattering
B) condition
C) advection
D) reflection
E) albedo

A) scattering

45

45) The atmosphere is heated, for the most part, from ________.
A) above
B) below
C) the stratosphere
D) the thermosphere
E) none of the above

B) below

46

46) The freezing point of water is ________ on the Kelvin scale.
A) 32
B) 0
C) 273
D) 60
E) -40

C) 273

47

47) Most oceanic gyres are centered at ________ latitude.
A) 3°
B) 30°
C) 53°
D) 66°
E) 90°

B) 30°

48

48) Which of the following is closely related to a surface temperature inversion?
A) heating during the daytime
B) cold-air drainage
C) albedo
D) low pressure
E) significant vertical mixing

B) cold-air drainage

49

49) Cool ocean currents deflect global Earth surface isotherms ________.
A) poleward
B) towards the Prime Meridian
C) equatorward
D) towards the closest continent
E) towards the ocean bottom

C) equatorward

50

50) In terms of long-term temperature increases in the atmosphere, which of the following is TRUE?
A) Average global temperature has risen 5.0°C in the last 100 years.
B) No changes have been observed in the 21st century.
C) The greenhouse effect has never been shown to be real.
D) Increases in greenhouse gases have been observed.
E) It appears that we can readily curb the carbon dioxide problem.

D) Increases in greenhouse gases have been observed.

51

51) Vertical motion in air causes cooling of the lifted air. This phenomenon is governed by the ________ effect.
A) Coriolis
B) albedo
C) inversion
D) adiabatic
E) latitudinal

D) adiabatic

52

52) Which of the following electromagnetic wavelengths are LONGEST?
A) microwaves
B) visible energy
C) ultraviolet energy
D) cosmic rays
E) infrared energy

A) microwaves

53

53) The current observed increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is attributable to
A) human activities.
B) earthquakes.
C) volcanoes.
D) the end of the "Ice Age".
E) grass fires set by lightning.

A) human activities.

54

54) The radiation coming from the Sun is most plentiful at .5 micrometers. The most plentiful radiation coming from the Earth is at ________ micrometer(s).
A) 0
B) 0.5
C) 2
D) 5
E) 10

E) 10

55

55) Which of the following does NOT refer to the transfer of electromagnetic radiation?
A) transmission
B) reflection
C) absorption
D) scattering
E) conduction

E) conduction

56

56) In the heating of the atmosphere, which amount of energy is SMALLEST?
A) solar radiation received at the surface
B) the albedo of the Earth system
C) solar radiation absorbed by ozone
D) solar radiation entering the atmosphere
E) solar radiation absorbed by the atmosphere

C) solar radiation absorbed by ozone

57

57) The belt of maximum solar energy input to Earth swings back and forth
A) between 0 through 90 degrees latitude.
B) through the middle latitudes.
C) through the area of energy deficit.
D) through the tropics.
E) through a total of 5 degrees of latitude.

D) through the tropics.

58

58) On maps of solar energy receipt, the main interruption to a strictly latitudinal pattern is
A) altitude.
B) cloud cover.
C) daylength.
D) air pollution.
E) angle of incidence.

B) cloud cover.

59

59) Which of the following would NOT be a reason why land heats faster than water?
A) the presence of clouds
B) lower specific heat
C) no mobility
D) less transmissivity
E) less evaporation

A) the presence of clouds

60

60) Ocean gyres flow ________ in the Southern Hemisphere.
A) clockwise
B) counterclockwise
C) northward
D) southward
E) towards the Equator

B) counterclockwise

61

61) On the equatorward side of each subtropical gyre is found the
A) Gulf Stream.
B) California Current.
C) West Wind Drift.
D) Equatorial Current.
E) Peru Current.

D) Equatorial Current.

62

62) Major surface currents are set in motion by
A) the wakes of ships.
B) salinity differences.
C) winds.
D) density differences.
E) shapes of coastlines.

C) winds.

63

63) The normal vertical temperature gradient (average lapse rate) in the troposphere is CLOSEST to how many degrees Celsius per 1,000 meters?
A) 1.5
B) 3.5
C) 6.5
D) 16.5
E) 32.5

C) 6.5

64

64) Subsidence inversions are most closely associated with
A) the presence of cities.
B) low-pressure storms.
C) high-pressure conditions.
D) the intertropical convergence.
E) the rising of air.

C) high-pressure conditions.

65

65) Although several factors are involved, the main factor controlling the distribution of annual average temperature for Earth as a whole is
A) longitude.
B) latitude.
C) altitude.
D) land/water contrasts.
E) ocean currents.

B) latitude.

66

66) An isotherm bends towards the Equator as it passes from the ocean over the land. One can infer
A) the season is summer.
B) the season is fall.
C) the season is winter.
D) the season is spring.
E) it is warmer over the land than the ocean.

C) the season is winter.

67

67) In an inversion, which is true?
A) Wind speeds are very high.
B) Large storms tend to be formed.
C) Air rises quickly.
D) The temperature decreases with altitude.
E) The temperature increases with altitude.

E) The temperature increases with altitude.

68

68) The boiling point of water at sea level is 100°C, which is the same as ________ Kelvin.
A) 0
B) 32
C) 212
D) 373
E) 410

D) 373

69

69) A yearly net surplus of energy is experienced for all latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere SOUTH of which latitude?
A) 0°N
B) 8°N
C) 28°N
D) 58°N
E) 88°N

C) 28°N

70

70) On the average, sunlight received on the Earth's surface is only ________ as strong as that received at the edge of the atmosphere.
A) 1/100
B) 1/10
C) 1/4
D) 1/2
E) 1/8

D) 1/2

71

71) The basic direction of flow of the equatorial counter current is
A) to the east.
B) to the west.
C) to the northeast.
D) to the southwest.
E) to the south.

A) to the east.

72

72) The Sun
A) is a relatively large star.
B) generates energy through fission.
C) is the closest galaxy to Earth.
D) actually plays a minor role in energizing Earth's life forms.
E) is a star of average size.

E) is a star of average size.

73

73) In a single second, the Earth receives as much energy from the Sun as
A) it reradiates in a week.
B) humans use in a century.
C) humans have used since the beginning of civilization.
D) all powerplants generate in a week.
E) Earth has produced by volcanic eruptions since the beginning of Earth history.

D) all powerplants generate in a week.

74

74) The speed of light is closest to ________ kilometers per second.
A) 3,000
B) 30,000
C) 300,000
D) 3,000,000
E) 30,000,000

C) 300,000

75

75) Between 0.7 micrometers and 1,000 micrometers are the ________ wavelengths.
A) microwave
B) visible
C) infrared
D) ultraviolet
E) x-ray

C) infrared

76

76) For atmospheric radiation, ________ micrometers is considered to be the boundary between "shortwaves" and "longwaves."
A) 1
B) 4
C) 10
D) 40
E) 100

B) 4

77

77) Almost all terrestrial radiation can be considered to be ________ and almost all solar radiation can be considered to be ________.
A) shortwave, longwave
B) shortwave, shortwave
C) longwave, longwave
D) longwave, shortwave
E) heat, light

D) longwave, shortwave

78

78) The most plentiful terrestrial wavelengths are 20 times ________ than solar wavelengths.
A) more powerful
B) longer
C) faster
D) slower
E) shorter

B) longer

79

79) Which two of the following terms describe processes which are quite similar?
A) absorption and transmission
B) scattering and reflection
C) transmission and convection
D) absorption and adiabatic heating
E) radiation and conduction

B) scattering and reflection

80

80) What process explains the slow rate of snowmelt on a sunny day when the air temperature is above freezing?
A) conduction
B) transmission
C) reflection
D) advection
E) convection

C) reflection

81

81) Given land/water heating contrasts, one would expect to find the coldest winter temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere
A) near the North Pole.
B) in Siberia (70°N).
C) in southern Canada (50°N).
D) in Oklahoma (35°N).
E) over the oceans off of Alaska.

B) in Siberia (70°N).

82

82) Which satellite system is used to monitor Earth's radiation budget?
A) GOES
B) POES
C) Landsat
D) GPS
E) GIS

B) POES

83

83) In the 20th century, the increased greenhouse effect raised global atmospheric temperatures by
A) less than 1°C.
B) 5°C.
C) 20°C.
D) 40°C.
E) an insignificant amount.

A) less than 1°C.

84

84) The main culprit for global warming appears to be
A) carbon dioxide.
B) nitrous oxides.
C) chlorofluorocarbons.
D) methane.
E) inaccurate computer models.

A) carbon dioxide.

85

85) Compared to other substances in the Earth system, air is considered ________ conductor of energy.
A) an excellent
B) a better than average
C) an average
D) a poorer than average
E) a very poor

E) a very poor

86

86) Where on Earth does one expect the greatest latitudinal displacement of isotherms between January and July?
A) over the middle latitude oceans
B) over the equatorial oceans
C) over the high latitude continents
D) over the equatorial continents
E) over the high latitude oceans

C) over the high latitude continents

87

87) Solar energy is also known as ________.
A) power
B) insolation
C) conduction
D) convection
E) longwave energy

B) insolation

88

88) Which two terms are NOT closely related?
A) reflection, scattering
B) reflection, albedo
C) albedo, longwaves
D) longwaves, atmospheric absorption
E) atmospheric absorption, ultraviolet energy

C) albedo, longwaves

89

89) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Earth emits more energy per area than the Sun.
B) The Sun essentially functions as a blackbody.
C) The Sun is a type of Black Hole.
D) Earth radiates energy to space.
E) The atmosphere absorbs more energy directly from the Sun than it reflects to space.

B) The Sun essentially functions as a blackbody.

90

90) In which of the below does electromagnetic radiation change its wavelengths?
A) reflection
B) scattering
C) transmission
D) convection
E) absorption and emission

E) absorption and emission

91

91) The MAIN source of atmosphere heating is from the
A) absorption of ultraviolet energy from the Sun.
B) conduction of energy from the Earth.
C) convection of energy from the Earth.
D) reradiation of energy from the Earth.
E) absorption of insolation.

D) reradiation of energy from the Earth.

92

92) More than three-fourths of all sunshine falls on ________ as it reaches Earth's surface.
A) water
B) soil
C) continents
D) rocks
E) clouds

A) water

93

93) Which of the following is TRUE?
A) Earth's energy budget is perfectly balanced.
B) Earth's energy budget is unbalanced by latitude.
C) Earth's energy budget is vertically unbalanced.
D) Earth's energy budget is the cause of all weather.
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

94

94) The Sun is directly on the horizon. The angle of incidence
A) is 0°.
B) is 45°.
C) is 90°.
D) is 180°.
E) cannot be calculated without additional information.

A) is 0°.

95

95) At which locations is solar energy most concentrated?
A) where the Sun is closest to the curved Earth surface
B) anywhere on Earth, if it is the perihelion
C) at places where the angle of incidence is 90°
D) at places where the angle of incidence is 0°
E) where the atmosphere has the most water vapor

C) at places where the angle of incidence is 90°

96

96) Where are seasonal changes in day length least important?
A) middle latitudes
B) high latitudes
C) tropical latitudes
D) low altitudes
E) near oceans

C) tropical latitudes

97

97) Emission of energy is most closely associated with ________.
A) reflection
B) scattering
C) radiation
D) latent heat
E) conduction

C) radiation

98

98) Methane is one of the "greenhouse gases". ________ is (are) a primary source of release of methane into the atmosphere.
A) The use of aerosol sprays
B) Grazing animals
C) Automobiles
D) The burning of coal at power plants
E) The breakdown of ozone

B) Grazing animals

99

99) Dallas, Texas is in the continental interior. San Diego, California is on the ocean. Which of the following is true?
A) San Diego's wintertime temperatures should be lower than Dallas'.
B) Dallas' summertime temperatures should be lower than San Diego's.
C) There should not be much temperature difference if their latitudes are similar.
D) There should not be much temperature difference if their longitudes are similar.
E) Dallas should have a larger yearly range of temperature than San Diego.

E) Dallas should have a larger yearly range of temperature than San Diego.

100

100) Albedo is energy ________ from an object as compared to the original amount of energy that struck the object.
A) emitted
B) reflected
C) conducted
D) advected
E) convected

B) reflected

101

101) Which of the following is a "greenhouse gas" (natural or human-induced)?
A) carbon dioxide
B) methane
C) ozone
D) chlorofluorocarbons
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

102

102) As the angle of incidence becomes less, the
A) Sun appears higher in the sky.
B) distance from Earth to Sun increases.
C) amount of energy coming from the Sun decreases.
D) tilt of Earth's axis increases.
E) less concentrated solar energy becomes.

E) less concentrated solar energy becomes.

103

103) Which of the following is a transfer of energy between substances?
A) translational kinetic energy
B) rotation
C) heat
D) internal energy
E) angle of incidence

C) heat

104

104) Which of the following is the proper term for the average kinetic energy of all the molecules of a substance?
A) conduction
B) electromagnetic radiation
C) heat
D) wavelengths
E) inertia

C) heat

105

105) Because of the specific shapes of the individual continents
A) gyres exist.
B) ocean currents exist.
C) warm Pacific Ocean water is prevented from entering the Arctic Ocean.
D) cold Arctic Ocean water is prevented from entering the Atlantic Ocean.
E) there is no subtropical gyre in the South Atlantic.

C) warm Pacific Ocean water is prevented from entering the Arctic Ocean.

106

106) Overall, the Southern Hemisphere has a milder winter than the Northern Hemisphere because
A) the days are shorter in the Northern Hemisphere.
B) there is more water in the Southern Hemisphere.
C) ocean currents are almost non-existent in the Southern Hemisphere.
D) the Sun is closest to Earth during the Southern Hemisphere winter.
E) all of the above

B) there is more water in the Southern Hemisphere.

107

107) Northern Africa, southwestern Asia, and southwestern North America experience what in common?
A) the hottest summers on Earth
B) the rainiest warm seasons on Earth
C) many cloudy days because of the nearby Equator
D) the largest winter-to-summer temperature ranges on Earth
E) the presence of warm ocean currents

A) the hottest summers on Earth

108

108) From the climatic records it is clear
A) a runaway greenhouse effect threatens to kill life on Earth.
B) the scientific notion of global warming seems to be in error.
C) Earth's temperatures have actually decreased substantially in the last 100 years.
D) Humans created the greenhouse effect.
E) there has been warming in the last 100 years.

E) there has been warming in the last 100 years.

109

109) The text's map of the average daily insolation received in the 48 coterminous United States shows the ________ to have the highest values.
A) northwest
B) northeast
C) central
D) southwest
E) southeast

D) southwest

110

110) Water is highly mobile. This means that the solar radiation incident upon it will
A) be radiated to the North Pole.
B) be disbursed both broadly and deeply.
C) act similarly to the insolation incident on land.
D) be uninfluenced by latent heat.
E) be traveling approximately twice as far as the insolation incident upon the land.

D) be uninfluenced by latent heat.

111

111) Which set of locations is associated with a striking, persistent upwelling of cold water to the ocean surface?
A) the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
B) the middle of the Pacific Ocean
C) middle latitude eastern coasts of continents
D) subtropical coasts of continents
E) polar coasts

D) subtropical coasts of continents

112

112) A calorie is defined as a unit of energy needed to heat 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.

TRUE

113

113) The solar constant has a value of 1372 watts per square centimeter per minute.

TRUE

114

114) Visible light comprises a large part of the electromagnetic energy received by Earth.

TRUE

115

115) The ability of a molecule to pass through the atmosphere is called scattering.

FALSE

116

116) The horizontal movement of heat in the atmosphere is advection.

TRUE

117

117) In the low latitudes, the Earth receives a net gain of radiant energy in the tropical latitudes.

TRUE

118

118) Lines connecting points of equal pressure are isotherms.

FALSE

119

119) Precipitation is an unlikely occurrence during an inversion.

TRUE

120

120) The general circulation of the oceans is a major mechanism for the transfer of energy from the tropics to the poles.

TRUE

121

121) The hottest parts of the Earth's surface are found in the equatorial zone.

FALSE

122

122) At the top of the atmosphere at the North Pole during an entire year, more energy leaves than enters.

TRUE

123

123) 0 Kelvin is is much warmer than 0 Celsius.

TRU

124

124) Visible light makes up most parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

FALSE

125

125) Expansion of volume occurs in rising air.

TRUE

126

126) The Earth's land surface is a good heat absorber but not a good conductor.

TRUE

127

127) In the middle and high latitudes, there are no significant seasonal variations in the duration of sunlight.

FALSE

128

128) Latent heat is involved in the process of evaporation.

TRUE

129

129) The Fahrenheit scale of temperature is still the most widely used scale in the world.

FALSE

130

130) The position of the major oceanic gyres is caused by the major atmospheric circulations.

TRUE

131

131) Evidence suggests anthropogenic factors are associated with global warming.

TRUE

132

132) Equatorward-moving currents on the eastern sides of oceanic basins carry cool water toward the Equator.

TRUE

133

133) The vertical distribution of temperature in the troposphere is essentially unchanging over time.

FALSE

134

134) Summer temperatures are generally higher over continents than over oceans.

TRUE

135

135) The tropics are characterized by wide variations between temperatures of seasons.

FALSE

136

136) Albedo is the same phenomenon as advection.

FALSE

137

137) Adiabatic warming takes place by compression in descending air.

TRUE

138

138) If an object is a good absorber of energy, it is likely to be a poor reflector.

TRUE

139

139) Air is an excellent conductor of heat.

FALSE

140

140) High angle solar energy will traverse a shorter course through the atmosphere than low angle solar energy.

TRUE

141

141) Convection is associated with vertical air movements.

TRUE

142

142) Winter cold is the result of limited insolation and of the brevity of the daylight period.

TRUE

143

143) The specific heat of land is about five times that of water.

TRUE

144

144) In a continental climate one would expect higher winter temperatures than in a maritime climate.

FALSE

145

145) Evidence clearly suggests global warming is taking place.

TRUE

146

146) Energy and heat are synonymous concepts.

FALSE

147

147) Conduction comes about through molecular collision.

TRUE

148

148) About 75 percent of terrestrial radiation escapes directly back to space.

FALSE

149

149) The distance of passage of a solar beam through the atmosphere is determined by the angle of incidence.

TRUE

150

150) Solar radiation is most plentiful in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

FALSE

151

151) Solar radiation striking Earth's surface is characterized as "longwave".

FALSE

152

152) Shorter electromagnetic wavelengths are more easily scattered than longer ones.

TRUE

153

153) The "greenhouse effect" doesn't work the same way in a greenhouse as it does in the atmosphere.

TRUE

154

154) Convection is more efficient in a liquid as compared to a solid.

TRUE

155

155) Approximately 95 percent of terrestrial radiation is radiated in shortwaves from the surface directly to space.

FALSE

156

156) In general, the annual temperature ranges are greater in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere.

FALSE

157

157) Coriolis effect sets ocean currents in motion.

FALSE

158

158) Upwelling is associated with equatorward-flowing currents.

TRUE

159

159) Over the long run, all energy the Earth receives from the Sun is returned to space.

TRUE

160

160) All portions of the top of the Earth's atmosphere intercept a uniform amount of solar radiation.

FALSE

161

161) The transparency and transmissivity of the atmosphere is uniform over the globe.

FALSE

162

162) Ocean gyres rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

TRUE

163

163) Ultraviolet energy is the name for electromagnetic wavelengths measuring from 10 to 15 micrometers.

FALSE

164

164) "Convection" means heat is ________.

Answer: being transferred vertically

165

165) Kelvins can be converted to degrees Celsius by adding ________ to the Celsius reading.

Answer: 273

166

166) ________ is an atmospheric substance which is one of the substances causing the greenhouse effect.

Answer: Water vapor, carbon dioxide, dust, etc.

167

167) In the ________ latitudes, more energy leaves the top of the atmosphere than is received at the top of the atmosphere during a year.

Answer: polar and/or upper middle

168

168) A ________ climate is known for lesser seasonal extremes of temperature than its land counterpart.

Answer: maritime or oceanic

169

169) The ________ temperature scale has 100 units between freezing and boiling.

Answer: Celsius Scale

170

170) The world's main ocean currents are energized by the wind, but are deflected by the Earth's rotation. This deflection is known as ________.

Answer: Coriolis effect

171

171) On long, cold winter nights with clear, calm skies, a ________ inversion of temperature will occur.

Answer: radiational

172

172) The ________ is the season in which the Northern and Southern Hemispheres have their long-term (average) isotherms packed most closely together on maps.

Answer: winter

173

173) The steady, incoming solar radiation received at the top of the atmosphere is named the ________.

Answer: solar constant

174

174) The term "atmospheric effect" has been suggested as a more proper substitute for the widely used term "________".

Answer: greenhouse effect

175

175) The distance a ray of sunlight travels through the atmosphere is commonly referred to as the ________.

Answer: path length

176

181) "Western intensification" is a term referring to
A) ocean current off the east coasts of continents.
B) insolation received on the western portions of continents.
C) water moving towards the Equator.
D) upwelling.
E) water moving opposite to Coriolis effect.

A) ocean current off the east coasts of continents.

177

182) Approximately 15 percent of the world's electrical power is provided by solar energy.

FALSE

178

183) Alternating layers of ________ semiconductors make up photovoltaic cells.
A) "c" and "d"
B) "f" and "g"
C) "h" and "j"
D) "p" and "n"
E) "x" and "z"

D) "p" and "n"

179

184) Presently, photovoltaic cells are up to ________ percent efficient converters of solar energy to electricity.
A) 1
B) 10
C) 25
D) 50
E) 75

E) 75

180

185) To effectively use the solar resource over 24 hours, solar electrical systems must employ ________.

Answer: batteries

181

186) Available solar radiation is usually measured in BTUs.

FALSE

182

187) Nighttime outgoing longwave radiation is usually greatest over ________ regions of Earth.

Answer: desert

183

188) At Earth's surface, total absorbed solar radiation is greatest in the
A) polar latitudes
B) middle latitude
C) mountain regions
D) subtropical latitudes
E) equatorial latitudes

D) subtropical latitudes