Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Portraying Earth Deck (158):
___ is the type of remote sensing imagery best suited to use at night.
The first aerial photographs were taken in...
The middle 1800s
Of the following which is NOT considered a map essential?
Which of the following is essential for GPS to function?
Highly accurate clocks
The relationship between the map distance and the corresponding distance on the ground is known as the...
The scale of one inch to one mile is ___ in a representative fraction.
Which of the below, because of the wavelength it uses, tends to have the low spatial resolution of Earth surface features?
Microwave remote sensing
The "false color" imagery of some aerial photographs is also termed...
Which mapmaking method would be used to minimize distortion of continents on a world map?
An interrupted projection
The characteristic of projections which portray accurate sizes but distort the shapes of land masses is called...
Aside from normal photographic film, ___ film has proven very valuable for interpretation of earth resources from airborne cameras.
Central meridians are essential features in an ___ projection.
Which of the following is considered a "perfect" map projection in terms of the amount of distortion associated with it?
None of the above
All map projections have this in common.
A major disadvantage of oblique aerial photographs as compared to vertical air photographs is that...
Accurate measurement is more difficult
___ is the science of obtaining reliable measurements from photographs.
One difference between any two different map projections must always be...
How the geographic grid is arranged
Most of the maps are drawn on ___ projections for an optimal portrayal of worldwide dimensions.
Conformal maps greatly distort ___ of continents in higher latitudes.
By far, the greatest use of thermal IR scanning systems has been...
Onboard meteorological satellites
On which type of aerial imagery would a football field of artificial grass be discernible from natural grass?
Color infrared photography
Microwave imagery is ideally suited for sensing...
On large scale maps, equivalence and conformity can be...
Simultaneously approximates for small areas
The first airborne platform for aerial photography was a...
Map projections are mainly derived...
The scale of 1:63,360 is the same as one inch equals...
On small scale maps, it is difficult to achieve...
In ___ film photography, the photographic film is sensitive to wavelengths longer than visible light.
An ___ is the generic term for any map line which joins points of equal value.
The property of equivalence portrays accurate size although it...
The most famous and, undoubtedly, most widely used of all map projections is the ___ projection.
A loxodrome is another term for a...
The main purpose of the interruption of projections is...
To highlight continents with minimum distortion
The type of remote sensing which penetrates clouds at night for accurate terrain representation is...
A line connecting points with equal precipitation is known as an...
Isolines have all the properties EXCEPT the following:
They may cross eachother
A ___ scale remains correct even if the map is enlarged or reduced when reproduced.
The first cartographer to use isolines on a published map was...
Three dimensional effects are best obtained with...
Vertical aerial photographs
Together, title, date, and legend on a map are known as...
Which remote sensing systems sense the longest wavelengths?
A disadvantage of globes compared to maps is that globes are not...
The original purpose of the Mercator projection was for...
In the Mercator projection, which piece of the earth is portrayed ridiculously large in comparison to it's actual size?
Radar is an "active" remote sensing system and ___ is a "passive" system using the same wavelengths.
Which or the following refers to an "active" remote sensing system?
The most important earth resources satellite series was started in the 1970s and is known as...
Unlike aerial photography, Landsat imagery is interpreted through...
Numerical manipulation of various wavelengths
MODIS is associated with which satellite series?
Satellite data are analyzed in individual pieces representing several to many meters on the earth's surface. These pieces are known as...
Which of the following bands are NOT used by earth-sensing satellites mentioned in the text?
On color infrared photography, living green vegetation would appear...
If one wishes to produce a map which focused on the continents and showed little of the world's oceans, the they should use an ___ projection.
A loxodrome is...
A line of constant compass bearing
A Mercator map is constructed by projecting the grid of the globe onto a...
Which of the following is the most recent type of earth resource satellites?
Which of the following is an advantage of radar over all other remote sensing techniques?
It can operate at night
Which of the following should contain a brief summary of map's content or purpose?
The explanation of symbols used on a map should be contained in...
Which of the following is most closely identified with "multispectral remote sensing"?
Every map projection consists of an orderly arrangement of...
The geographic grid
Misuse of the Mercator projection is a result of...
Latitudinal differences in scale
How much area is shown in an entire Landsat image?
A few thousand square kilometers
A mountain appears in overlapping vertical aerial photographs. Which of the following measurements could be made by use of the photographs?
All of the above
(Exact altitudes, area, steepness of its slopes, contour lines)
Radar senses energy in wavelengths longer than...
The ERTS series of satellites, launched in the 1970s, is now known as...
The basic imaging instrument in the Landsat series of satellites is known as the...
Aerial photography of the earth's surface taken from an angle other than straight down is termed...
A GIS is a library of information based on...
Which of the below wavelengths have been most useful in expanding measure biomass?
Which of the following is NOT associated with Landsat images?
The ultraviolet portion of the spectrum
In terms of remote sensing, geographers...
Should not stop using maps and field study
On an orthophoto map, one might expect to find...
Which of the following has been accomplished using the new geopositioning technology?
All of the above
(Ocean floor mapping, earthquake prediction, natural disaster damage assessment, volcano monitoring)
Has accuracies better than the best bass maps
Which of the following would be used for overlay map analysis where two or more map layers are superimposed or integrated?
GIS technology is a direct result of advances in...
All of the above
(Surveying, computer cartography, spatial stayistics, remote sensing)
For geographers, the new mapping tools like remote sensing, GPS, and GIS are best viewed as...
Adjuncts to field study
Which of the following would be a type of application in which a GIS could be used?
All of the above
(Environment site assessment, resource management, environmental monitoring, integrating topographic information with vegetation information)
The U.S. version of GPS is dependent on triangulation using a network of at least ___ satellites.
To represent elevation on maps, cartographers use ___, which are a form of isoline.
___ is what enables aerial photographs to be viewed in "stereo".
Which of the following choices represents a technology into which the other choices can be used as inputs?
___ is the "major dilemma" of mapmaking explained by the text.
Equivalence versus conformality
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is based on...
Data from satellites
An ___ is a line joining points of equal magnetic declination.
A ___ map contains lines joining points of equal elevations.
___ are multi-colored, distortion-free photographic image maps.
To use a ___, aerial photographs must be carefully overlapped.
You wish to navigate your yacht from Europe to the U.S. Which type of map projection would be most useful?
Which of the following portions of the electromagnetic spectrum is sensed on FILM?
Which remote sensing technology demonstrates universal applicability to most problems?
None of the above
To construct an isoline on a map it is necessary to...
Interpolate between points of known value
Maps can be made by projecting the earth's spherical grid onto...
All of the above
(Cone, cylinder, plane, paper)
Which of the following is TRUE concerning GPS technology?
It is freely available to the public
Which of the following is NOT part of a geographic information system (GIS)?
Human drawing of isolines on maps
A geometrically corrected map consisting of aerial photographs is known as an ___ map.
Which of the following forms of remote sensing is based on sound?
An example of a large-scale map is a classroom wall map of the world.
108) The earliest aerial photographs were taken from balloons.
109) Because they are shaped like the real Earth, globes are usually the best way to convey Earth information.
110) At a scale of 1:10,000, the distance of an inch on a map would represent more than a mile on the ground.
111) A globe maintains the properties of conformality and equivalence.
112) A pseudocylindrical projection is a roughly football-shaped map.
113) All conformal projections have meridians and parallels crossing each other at right angles, just as they do on the globe.
114) Thermal infrared images are the most useful type of images for detecting different vegetation types.
115) Choosing the appropriate equivalence projection will result in a map with no distortion in its depiction of Earth features or areas.
116) The maps in your physical geography textbook are an example of automated cartography and were produced using desktop computers.
117) The Mercator projection is very close to maintaining equivalence in low latitudes.
118) A globe is a better model of Earth as a whole than any map.
119) Landsat images are unavailable for public use owing to their "top secret" classification by the U.S. government.
120) On a Mercator projection, the North Pole would be represented by a line as long as the Equator.
121) All map projections have the basic property of equivalence.
122) The scale of a map can never be constant all over the entire map.
123) On Mercator projection, Greenland's size relative to the United States is greatly exaggerated.
124) The original purpose of the Mercator projection was for navigation.
125) "Equivalence" in map projections means having no scale changes over the entire map.
126) The main useful trait of color infrared photography is its depiction of the states of vegetation.
127) Maps are inherently inaccurate because of their attempt to depict the curved Earth on a flat surface.
128) The one inch to the mile scale map is a small scale map.
129) There are major discrepancies between the true shape of the Earth and that of a globe.
130) Conformality and equivalence are, in general, mutually exclusive properties.
131) Interrupted projections are neither conformal nor equidistant.
132) Images from radar sensors can be acquired only during the daytime.
133) A Mercator map shows loxodromes as straight lines.
134) The Mercator projection should not be used to show tropical areas because they are greatly distorted in area on this projection.
135) A major advantage in using oblique aerial photography is the easy measurement of Earth features.
136) Microwave remote sensing is associated with wavelengths much shorter than those of visible light.
137) Radar imagery is especially appropriate for terrain analysis.
138) A map is usually much smaller than the part of the Earth's surface it represents.
139) A map which showed your classroom building as being 6 inches long on the map would be a large scale map.
140) There is no possible way to avoid distortion on a map projection.
141) The primary reason for use of a stereoscope is to magnify the photos under study.
142) Satellites in the SPOT and Landsat series carry identical sensors.
143) GPS was originally developed by the U.S. Department of Defense to guide missiles.
144) The enhanced thematic mapper on the newer Landsat satellites is a great improvement because it increases the spectral range within each spectral band used.
145) A map at large scale generally shows a large portion (continental size or larger) of Earth's surface.
146) It is important that all maps have their meridians parallel to each other as they extend east to west.
147) Title, date, and legend are three of the five ________ .
Answer: map essentials
148) A(n) ________ scale is a type of map scale which makes use of a line marked off in graduated distances.
149) The representative fraction equivalent to the statement "one inch equals one mile" is ________.
150) ________ is the measurement or acquisition of information by a recording device which is not in physical contact with the object under study.
Answer: Remote sensing
151) One is able to view overlapping vertical aerial photographs in "3 dimensions" using a device called a ________.
152) A ________ is another name for a loxodrome.
Answer: rhumb line
153) ________ micrometers is a wavelength of visible light (ANY of the wavelengths will do).
Answer: Any wavelength between .36 and .72 micrometers is acceptable.
154) ________ is the property of map projections which causes areas to be portrayed at the same relative sizes they are on the globe.
155) ________ is the Landsat spectral band used for identification of wetlands, organic soils, and water bodies.
Answer: The near infrared
156) The main problem with conformal projections is that ________.
Answer: areas must be distorted to show proper shapes
157) ________ is an active form of remote sensing based on sound.
158) Explain how the use of multispectral scanning is an advantage over the use of a single band when identifying Earth features via remote sensing.
159) Suppose a geographer was hired to help assess the health/vigor of the winter wheat crop (to be harvested in the late spring) in an agricultural county of a Great Plains state; the object would be to predict the winter wheat yield two months in advance. What sort of remote sensing techniques might be used and why?
160) Explain how the global positioning system operates to locate your position within a few meters.
161) Explain how the properties of conformality and equivalence always pose a dilemma to the mapmaker.
162) A plane projection is obtained by projecting the markings of a center-lit globe onto a flat piece of paper.
163) A Great Circle Route is always shown as a curved line on a map projection.
164) On a conic projection, the circle of tangency becomes the principal parallel of the map.
165) The Wide Area Augmentation System and the Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations exist to increase the accuracy of GPS measurements.