Chapter 2 - Portraying Earth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Portraying Earth Deck (158):
1

___ is the type of remote sensing imagery best suited to use at night.

Thermal infrared

2

The first aerial photographs were taken in...

The middle 1800s

3

Of the following which is NOT considered a map essential?

Color

4

Which of the following is essential for GPS to function?

Highly accurate clocks

5

The relationship between the map distance and the corresponding distance on the ground is known as the...

Scale

6

The scale of one inch to one mile is ___ in a representative fraction.

1:63,360

7

Which of the below, because of the wavelength it uses, tends to have the low spatial resolution of Earth surface features?

Microwave remote sensing

8

The "false color" imagery of some aerial photographs is also termed...

Color IR

9

Which mapmaking method would be used to minimize distortion of continents on a world map?

An interrupted projection

10

The characteristic of projections which portray accurate sizes but distort the shapes of land masses is called...

Equivalence

11

Aside from normal photographic film, ___ film has proven very valuable for interpretation of earth resources from airborne cameras.

Color infrared

12

Central meridians are essential features in an ___ projection.

Interrupted

13

Which of the following is considered a "perfect" map projection in terms of the amount of distortion associated with it?

None of the above

14

All map projections have this in common.

Some distortion

15

A major disadvantage of oblique aerial photographs as compared to vertical air photographs is that...

Accurate measurement is more difficult

16

___ is the science of obtaining reliable measurements from photographs.

Photogrammetry

17

One difference between any two different map projections must always be...

How the geographic grid is arranged

18

Most of the maps are drawn on ___ projections for an optimal portrayal of worldwide dimensions.

Equivalent

19

Conformal maps greatly distort ___ of continents in higher latitudes.

Shapes

20

By far, the greatest use of thermal IR scanning systems has been...

Onboard meteorological satellites

21

On which type of aerial imagery would a football field of artificial grass be discernible from natural grass?

Color infrared photography

22

Microwave imagery is ideally suited for sensing...

Moisture

23

On large scale maps, equivalence and conformity can be...

Simultaneously approximates for small areas

24

The first airborne platform for aerial photography was a...

Balloon

25

Map projections are mainly derived...

Mathematically

26

The scale of 1:63,360 is the same as one inch equals...

One mile

27

On small scale maps, it is difficult to achieve...

Equivalence

28

In ___ film photography, the photographic film is sensitive to wavelengths longer than visible light.

Color infrared

29

An ___ is the generic term for any map line which joins points of equal value.

Isoline

30

The property of equivalence portrays accurate size although it...

Distorts shapes

31

The most famous and, undoubtedly, most widely used of all map projections is the ___ projection.

Mercator

32

A loxodrome is another term for a...

Rhumb line

33

The main purpose of the interruption of projections is...

To highlight continents with minimum distortion

34

The type of remote sensing which penetrates clouds at night for accurate terrain representation is...

Radar

35

A line connecting points with equal precipitation is known as an...

Isohyet

36

Isolines have all the properties EXCEPT the following:

They may cross eachother

37

A ___ scale remains correct even if the map is enlarged or reduced when reproduced.

Graphic

38

The first cartographer to use isolines on a published map was...

Halley

39

Three dimensional effects are best obtained with...

Vertical aerial photographs

40

Together, title, date, and legend on a map are known as...

Map essentials

41

Which remote sensing systems sense the longest wavelengths?

Microwave imaging

42

A disadvantage of globes compared to maps is that globes are not...

Portable

43

The original purpose of the Mercator projection was for...

Ocean navigation

44

In the Mercator projection, which piece of the earth is portrayed ridiculously large in comparison to it's actual size?

Greenland

45

Radar is an "active" remote sensing system and ___ is a "passive" system using the same wavelengths.

Microwave sensing

46

Which or the following refers to an "active" remote sensing system?

Radar

47

The most important earth resources satellite series was started in the 1970s and is known as...

Landsat

48

Unlike aerial photography, Landsat imagery is interpreted through...

Numerical manipulation of various wavelengths

49

MODIS is associated with which satellite series?

EOS

50

Satellite data are analyzed in individual pieces representing several to many meters on the earth's surface. These pieces are known as...

Pixels

51

Which of the following bands are NOT used by earth-sensing satellites mentioned in the text?

X-rays

52

On color infrared photography, living green vegetation would appear...

Red

53

If one wishes to produce a map which focused on the continents and showed little of the world's oceans, the they should use an ___ projection.

Interrupted

54

A loxodrome is...

A line of constant compass bearing

55

A Mercator map is constructed by projecting the grid of the globe onto a...

Cone

56

Which of the following is the most recent type of earth resource satellites?

EOS

57

Which of the following is an advantage of radar over all other remote sensing techniques?

It can operate at night

58

Which of the following should contain a brief summary of map's content or purpose?

The title

59

The explanation of symbols used on a map should be contained in...

The legend

60

Which of the following is most closely identified with "multispectral remote sensing"?

Landsat

61

Every map projection consists of an orderly arrangement of...

The geographic grid

62

Misuse of the Mercator projection is a result of...

Latitudinal differences in scale

63

How much area is shown in an entire Landsat image?

A few thousand square kilometers

64

A mountain appears in overlapping vertical aerial photographs. Which of the following measurements could be made by use of the photographs?

All of the above
(Exact altitudes, area, steepness of its slopes, contour lines)

65

Radar senses energy in wavelengths longer than...

1 millimeter

66

The ERTS series of satellites, launched in the 1970s, is now known as...

Landsat

67

The basic imaging instrument in the Landsat series of satellites is known as the...

Thematic mapper

68

Aerial photography of the earth's surface taken from an angle other than straight down is termed...

Oblique

69

A GIS is a library of information based on...

Maps

70

Which of the below wavelengths have been most useful in expanding measure biomass?

Near infrared

71

Which of the following is NOT associated with Landsat images?

The ultraviolet portion of the spectrum

72

In terms of remote sensing, geographers...

Should not stop using maps and field study

73

On an orthophoto map, one might expect to find...

Distortion-free photographs

74

Which of the following has been accomplished using the new geopositioning technology?

All of the above
(Ocean floor mapping, earthquake prediction, natural disaster damage assessment, volcano monitoring)

75

Geopositioning technology...

Has accuracies better than the best bass maps

76

Which of the following would be used for overlay map analysis where two or more map layers are superimposed or integrated?

GIS

77

GIS technology is a direct result of advances in...

All of the above
(Surveying, computer cartography, spatial stayistics, remote sensing)

78

For geographers, the new mapping tools like remote sensing, GPS, and GIS are best viewed as...

Adjuncts to field study

79

Which of the following would be a type of application in which a GIS could be used?

All of the above
(Environment site assessment, resource management, environmental monitoring, integrating topographic information with vegetation information)

80

The U.S. version of GPS is dependent on triangulation using a network of at least ___ satellites.

24

81

To represent elevation on maps, cartographers use ___, which are a form of isoline.

Contour lines

82

___ is what enables aerial photographs to be viewed in "stereo".

Overlap

83

Which of the following choices represents a technology into which the other choices can be used as inputs?

GIS

84

___ is the "major dilemma" of mapmaking explained by the text.

Equivalence versus conformality

85

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is based on...

Data from satellites

86

An ___ is a line joining points of equal magnetic declination.

Isotonic line

87

A ___ map contains lines joining points of equal elevations.

Contour

88

___ are multi-colored, distortion-free photographic image maps.

Orthophoto maps

89

To use a ___, aerial photographs must be carefully overlapped.

Stereoscope

90

You wish to navigate your yacht from Europe to the U.S. Which type of map projection would be most useful?

Mercator

91

Which of the following portions of the electromagnetic spectrum is sensed on FILM?

Color infrared

92

Which remote sensing technology demonstrates universal applicability to most problems?

None of the above

93

To construct an isoline on a map it is necessary to...

Interpolate between points of known value

94

Maps can be made by projecting the earth's spherical grid onto...

All of the above
(Cone, cylinder, plane, paper)

95

Which of the following is TRUE concerning GPS technology?

It is freely available to the public

96

Which of the following is NOT part of a geographic information system (GIS)?

Human drawing of isolines on maps

97

A geometrically corrected map consisting of aerial photographs is known as an ___ map.

Orthophoto

98

Which of the following forms of remote sensing is based on sound?

sonar

99

An example of a large-scale map is a classroom wall map of the world.

FALSE

100

108) The earliest aerial photographs were taken from balloons.

TRUE

101

109) Because they are shaped like the real Earth, globes are usually the best way to convey Earth information.

FALSE

102

110) At a scale of 1:10,000, the distance of an inch on a map would represent more than a mile on the ground.

FALSE

103

111) A globe maintains the properties of conformality and equivalence.

TRUE

104

112) A pseudocylindrical projection is a roughly football-shaped map.

TRUE

105

113) All conformal projections have meridians and parallels crossing each other at right angles, just as they do on the globe.

TRUE

106

114) Thermal infrared images are the most useful type of images for detecting different vegetation types.

FALSE

107

115) Choosing the appropriate equivalence projection will result in a map with no distortion in its depiction of Earth features or areas.

FALSE

108

116) The maps in your physical geography textbook are an example of automated cartography and were produced using desktop computers.

TRUE

109

117) The Mercator projection is very close to maintaining equivalence in low latitudes.

TRUE

110

118) A globe is a better model of Earth as a whole than any map.

TRUE

111

119) Landsat images are unavailable for public use owing to their "top secret" classification by the U.S. government.

FALSE

112

120) On a Mercator projection, the North Pole would be represented by a line as long as the Equator.

TRUE

113

121) All map projections have the basic property of equivalence.

FALSE

114

122) The scale of a map can never be constant all over the entire map.

TRUE

115

123) On Mercator projection, Greenland's size relative to the United States is greatly exaggerated.

TRUE

116

124) The original purpose of the Mercator projection was for navigation.

TRUE

117

125) "Equivalence" in map projections means having no scale changes over the entire map.

FALSE

118

126) The main useful trait of color infrared photography is its depiction of the states of vegetation.

TRUE

119

127) Maps are inherently inaccurate because of their attempt to depict the curved Earth on a flat surface.

TRUE

120

128) The one inch to the mile scale map is a small scale map.

FALSE

121

129) There are major discrepancies between the true shape of the Earth and that of a globe.

FALSE

122

130) Conformality and equivalence are, in general, mutually exclusive properties.

TRUE

123

131) Interrupted projections are neither conformal nor equidistant.

FALSE

124

132) Images from radar sensors can be acquired only during the daytime.

FALSE

125

133) A Mercator map shows loxodromes as straight lines.

TRUE

126

134) The Mercator projection should not be used to show tropical areas because they are greatly distorted in area on this projection.

FALSE

127

135) A major advantage in using oblique aerial photography is the easy measurement of Earth features.

FALSE

128

136) Microwave remote sensing is associated with wavelengths much shorter than those of visible light.

FALSE

129

137) Radar imagery is especially appropriate for terrain analysis.

TRUE

130

138) A map is usually much smaller than the part of the Earth's surface it represents.

TRUE

131

139) A map which showed your classroom building as being 6 inches long on the map would be a large scale map.

TRUE

132

140) There is no possible way to avoid distortion on a map projection.

TRUE

133

141) The primary reason for use of a stereoscope is to magnify the photos under study.

FALSE

134

142) Satellites in the SPOT and Landsat series carry identical sensors.

FALSE

135

143) GPS was originally developed by the U.S. Department of Defense to guide missiles.

TRUE

136

144) The enhanced thematic mapper on the newer Landsat satellites is a great improvement because it increases the spectral range within each spectral band used.

FALSE

137

145) A map at large scale generally shows a large portion (continental size or larger) of Earth's surface.

FALSE

138

146) It is important that all maps have their meridians parallel to each other as they extend east to west.

FALSE

139

147) Title, date, and legend are three of the five ________ .

Answer: map essentials

140

148) A(n) ________ scale is a type of map scale which makes use of a line marked off in graduated distances.

Answer: graphic

141

149) The representative fraction equivalent to the statement "one inch equals one mile" is ________.

Answer: 1:63,360

142

150) ________ is the measurement or acquisition of information by a recording device which is not in physical contact with the object under study.

Answer: Remote sensing

143

151) One is able to view overlapping vertical aerial photographs in "3 dimensions" using a device called a ________.

Answer: stereoscope

144

152) A ________ is another name for a loxodrome.

Answer: rhumb line

145

153) ________ micrometers is a wavelength of visible light (ANY of the wavelengths will do).

Answer: Any wavelength between .36 and .72 micrometers is acceptable.

146

154) ________ is the property of map projections which causes areas to be portrayed at the same relative sizes they are on the globe.

Answer: Equivalence

147

155) ________ is the Landsat spectral band used for identification of wetlands, organic soils, and water bodies.

Answer: The near infrared

148

156) The main problem with conformal projections is that ________.

Answer: areas must be distorted to show proper shapes

149

157) ________ is an active form of remote sensing based on sound.

Answer: Sonar

150

158) Explain how the use of multispectral scanning is an advantage over the use of a single band when identifying Earth features via remote sensing.

Diff: 3

151

159) Suppose a geographer was hired to help assess the health/vigor of the winter wheat crop (to be harvested in the late spring) in an agricultural county of a Great Plains state; the object would be to predict the winter wheat yield two months in advance. What sort of remote sensing techniques might be used and why?

Diff: 3

152

160) Explain how the global positioning system operates to locate your position within a few meters.

Diff: 3

153

161) Explain how the properties of conformality and equivalence always pose a dilemma to the mapmaker.

Diff: 3

154

162) A plane projection is obtained by projecting the markings of a center-lit globe onto a flat piece of paper.

TRUE

155

163) A Great Circle Route is always shown as a curved line on a map projection.

FALSE

156

164) On a conic projection, the circle of tangency becomes the principal parallel of the map.

TRUE

157

165) The Wide Area Augmentation System and the Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations exist to increase the accuracy of GPS measurements.

TRUE

158

166) A(n)_____ is a recent development in cartography that readily allows computer manipulation of maps of Earth's surface.

C) digital elevation model