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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (40):
1

___ are typically found at the intersection of joints.
A. Sinkholes
B. Rivers
C. Magma chambers
D. Tower karst
E. Volcanoes

A. Sinkholes

2

The silica-rich evaporate deposits that surround geysers in the Yellowstone Basin are made of a material called ___.
A. Geyserite
B. Travertine
C. Limestone
D. Dripstone
E. Feldspar

A. Geyserite

3

A thermal karst feature that simply emits steam from small openings in the surface is called a ___.
A. Fumarole
B. Geyser
C. Hot spring
D. Magma chamber
E. Geyserite

A. Fumarole

4

The dissolved limestone that precipitates at the points where hot springs breach the surface is called ___.
A. Geyserite
B. Travertine
C. Rhyolite
D. Magma
E. Sandstone

B. Travertine

5

Surface runoff that disappears into a joint or sinkhole is called a ___.
A. Sink river
B. Swallow hole
C. Disappearing stream
D. Hot stream
E. Pillar

C. Disappearing stream

6

The primary substance that results from the two main dissolution processes is ___.
A. Water
B. Carbon dioxide
C. Calcium silicate
D. Dolomite
E. Calcium bicarbonate

E. Calcium bicarbonate

7

The primary difference between stalactites and stalagmites is their...
A. Location
B. Age
C. Chemical composition
D. Height
E. Travertine content

A. Location

8

Bedrock that has large number of joints will experience...
A. Speleothem formation
B. Little dissolution
C. Great precipitation
D. Great dissolution
E. Geysers

D. Great dissolution

9

It is theorized that the widespread geyser activity at Yellowstone National Park is the result of...
A. Hot spring
B. Volcano
C. Mountain building process
D. Travertine terrace
E. Mantle plume

E. Mantle plume

10

A feature created by sediment deposition that commonly occurs in arid regions at the mouth of a draw or canyon is a(n)...
A. Alluvial fan
B. Playa
C. Dune field
D. Talus slope
E. Sedimentation

A. Alluvial fan

11

The main dune form in most deserts is crescent-shaped ad usually found migrating across a non-sandy surface; it is called a(n)...
A. Seif
B. Star
C. Barchan
D. Arabian
E. Bajada

C. Barchan

12

___ are dry or seasonal lakes which form in arid landscapes, often leaving white deposits of salt, gypsum, or other materials.
A. Alluvial lakes
B. Playa lakes
C. Piedmont lakes
D. Sag ponds
E. Cirque lakes

B. Playa lakes

13

When the winds have removed all the smaller particles, the remaining surface of rocks and gravel is called...
A. Desert pavement
B. Alluvial fans
C. Playa lake
D. Desert varnish
E. Bajada

A. Desert pavement

14

Africa's best example of an exotic river is the...
A. Amazon
B. Nile
C. Orange
D. Congo
E. Zaire

B. Nile

15

Besides a lack of soil, the primary reason for limited soil creep in arid regions is...
A. No wind
B. Soil creep is not limited in arid regions
C. Age of the soil
D. No water
E. Hot temperatures

D. No water

16

A surface created by erosion residual that extends outward from a mountain base is called a(n)...
A. Inselberg
B. Bornhardt
C. Salina
D. Playa
E. Pediment

E. Pediment

17

The primary difference between ergs and hamadas is...
A. Their rock composition
B. Their age
C. Their latitude of formation
D. The temperatures which support them
E. Their elevation

A. Their rock composition

18

Sand dune formation is an example of...
A. Aeolian transportation
B. Aeolian erosion
C. Aeolian streaming
D. Aeolian saltation
E. Aeolian deposition

E. Aeolian deposition

19

The mesa-and-scarp land formation that forms from overland flow erosion and widespread ravines and gullies is called a(n)...
A. Plateau
B. Pinnacle
C. Butte
D. Badland
E. Arch

D. Badland

20

At its maximum extent, continental glacial ice in North America extended as far south as...
A. The Gulf of Mexico
B. Florida
C. Minnesota
D. The Ohio River
E. Montana

D. The Ohio River

21

___ is granular snow which is beginning to coalesce into glacial ice.
A. A cirque
B. Ablation
C. Nèvè or Firn
D. An esker
E. Ablation

C. Nèvè or Firn

22

Materials deposited during a lengthy pause in glacial retreat are known as...
A. Recessional moraine
B. Terminal moraine
C. Medial moraine
D. Eskers
E. Till plain

B. Terminal moraine

23

The worlds largest contemporary ice sheet in the Northern Hemisphere is found in...
A. Alaska
B. Greenland
C. The Himalayas
D. Africa
E. The high Cascades

B. Greenland

24

The slow melting of blocks of stagnant ice in the land surface is the cause of...
A. Cirques
B. Ground moraine
C. Eskers
D. Roche mountonneé
E. Kettle lakes

E. Kettle lakes

25

Glacially deposited hills that are slightly smaller than moraines are called...
A. Eskers
B. Drumlins
C. Till plains
D. Roche mountonneé
E. Kames

B. Drumlins

26

Associated with mountain glaciers are broad, amphitheater-shaped hollowed out areas called...
A. Cirques
B. Glacial troughs
C. Moraines
D. Permafrost
E. Pediment

A. Cirques

27

Lakes that form at the advance of a glacier are called...
A. Arêtes
B. Glacial meltwater
C. Horn lakes
D. Proglacial lakes
E. Eskers

D. Proglacial lakes

28

Which of the following is thought not to be a cause of the Pleistocene glaciation?
A. Decreased volcanic activity
B. Milankovitch cycles
C. Variations in solar output
D. Tectonic upheaval
E. Changing positions of continents

A. Decreased volcanic activity

29

The ground material that is transported along the ground at the base of the glacier is called...
A. Roche mountonneé
B. Glaciofluvial deposition
C. Kames
D. Outwash plains
E. Glacial flour

E. Glacial flour

30

The motion of water particles in a wave is primarily...
A. Up and down
B. On shore
C. Off shore
D. Circular
E. Refracting

D. Circular

31

The distance between consecutive wave crests or wave troughs is the...
A. Fetch
B. Backwash
C. Wavelength
D. Refraction
E. Wave height

C. Wavelength

32

Wave action on the land will often create caves and cliffs. These features are collectively called...
A. Swash
B. Wave cut terraces
C. Dunes
D. Surf zone
E. Wave refraction

B. Wave cut terraces

33

Waves often strike the shore at an angle, but the backwash is directly back into the water. The resulting zigzag movement of sand down the beach is called...
A. Longshore drift
B. Wave refraction
C. Swashbucklers
D. Rip current
E. Barrier island

A. Longshore drift

34

The apparent bending of waves as they strike an object along the coast is called...
A. Fetch
B. Wavelength
C. Refraction
D. Backshore
E. Longshore drift

C. Refraction

35

The primary difference between a split and barrier island is...
A. The wind direction
B. Splits from lagoons
C. Their formation
D. Their latitude of occurrence
E. The quantity of beach drifting

C. Their formation

36

The most likely reason that lakes are not as strongly affected as oceans by the tides is...
A. The lack of salinity
B. The latitude
C. The highly variable lake floor structure
D. Their depth
E. Their horizontal size

E. Their horizontal size

37

Coral polyps secrete solid masses of rocklike material. The primary chemical composition of this material is...
A. Calcium fluorite
B. Calcium silicate
C. Calcium carbonate
D. Carbon dioxide
E. Quartzite

C. Calcium carbonate

38

One method that humans use to modify the navigation channel of a bay and reduce beach loss is by using...
A. Jetties
B. Loes
C. Fjords
D. Frost wedging
E. Eustatic sea-level change

A. Jetties

39

The massive incursion of water on a coast that results from an offshore undersea earthquake is called a...
A. Barrier
B. Fjord
C. Ria
D. Tsunami
E. Uvala

D. Tsunami

40

Caves are found in most parts of the world where there are thick ___ deposits under the surface.
A. Igneous rock
B. Limestone
C. Magma
D. Till
E. Tuff

B. Limestone