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The 7 Characteristics of Living Organisms

1. Maintains boundaries
2. Movement
3. Responsiveness
4. Excretes
5. Growth
6. Reproduction
7. Metabolism


Levels of structural composition

Tissue: made of 2 or more cell type
Organ: made of 2 or more tissue type
Organ system


The 11 organ systems of the human body

Integumentary System
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Cardiovascular System
Lymphatic System
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Urinary System
Reproductive System (Male & Female)


Integumentary system

Skin, Hair, and Nails
-Protects the body from the external environment
-Produces Vitamin D
-Retains Water
-Regulates Body Temperature


Skeletal System

Bones and joints
-Supports the body
-Protects Internal organs
-Provides leverage for movement
-Produces blood cells
-Stores calcium salts


Muscular System

Skeletal Muscles
-Produces movement
-Controls body openings
-Generates heat
-maintains posture


Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
-Regulates body functions
-Provides for sensation, movement, automatic functions, and higher mental functions via nerve impulses


Endocrine System

Pancreas, thymus, thyroid, pineal, pituitary, adrenal, ovaries and testes
-Regulates body functions
-Regulates the functions of muscles, glands, and other tissues through the secretion of chemicals called hormones


Cardiovascular System

Heart and blood vessels
-Pumps and delivers oxygen-poor blood to the lungs and oxygen-rich blood to the tissues
-Transports cells, nutrients, and other substances


Lymphatic System

Lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, red bone marrow
-houses white blood cells (lymphocytes)
-Returns excess tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system
-Provides immunity (protection against disease)


Respiratory System

Lungs, trachea, larynx, pharynx, nasal cavity
-Delivers oxygen to the blood
-Removes carbon dioxide from the body
-Maintains the acid-base balance of the blood


Digestive System

Mouth, Esophagus, stomach, liver, large and small intestines, rectum, anus.
-Digests Food
-Absorbs nutrients into the blood
-Removes food waste
-Regulates fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance


Urinary System

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
-Removes metabolic wastes from the blood
-Regulates fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
-Stimulates blood cell production


What is Anatomy?

The study of structure or form of the human body.


What is Physiology?

The study of the body's functions.


Male Reproductive System

Penis, testes, scrotum, ductus deferens, prostate
-Produces and transports sperm
-Secretes hormones
-Sexual function


Female Reproductive System

Uterus, vagina, ovaries, uterine tubes, mammary glands
-Produces and transports eggs
-Site of fetal development, fetal nourishment, childbirth, and lactation
-Secretes hormones
-Sexual function


Anatomical Position

The body is standing upright and the feet are shoulder width apart, with the upper limbs at the sides of the trunk and the head and palms facing forward.


Serous Membranes and the 3 different examples

Consist of a single, continuous layer of tissue that folds over on itself to enclose a single space.
1. Pleural
2. Pericardial
3. Peritoneal


Serous Fluid

Produced by the cells of the membrane, is a watery, slippery liquid that lubricates organs just like oil lubricates the pistons in a care. It prevents friction as an organ moves against adjacent structures.


The Core Principles of Homeostasis

1. Feedback Loops
2. Gradients
3. Cellular Communication
4. Structure-function


Define homeostasis

Homeostasis is the maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in the environment.



The cells or organs that receive the control center’s signals in a feedback loop, and cause physiological responses that return the variable to homeostatic range.


What are the 3 components that control homeostasis in the body?

1. receptors (respond to input from stimuli)
2. control center
3. effectors (respond to output command from brain)


what are variables?

factors that can change like blood sugar level,body temp, and blood volume.


afferent vs. efferent

afferent is when receptors send a message to the control center. efferent is when the control center sends commands to the effectors.