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1

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the involuntary arm of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), also known as the ............... division.

involuntary

2

The ANS is divided into two separate divisions, the ................. and ................. nervous systems, which work together constantly to maintain homeostasis.

sympathetic and parasympathetic

3

The ANS oversees most vital functions including what 3 functions?

1. heart rate
2. blood pressure
3. digestive and urinary processes

4

Summarize the visceral reflex arc in the ANS

1. sensory info from skin and viscera is sent to brain.
2. CNS integrates info
3. motor impulses are sent to autonomic ganglia
4. autonomic ganglia send impulses to target organs where a response is triggered.

5

Somatic motor division neurons innervate ............. muscle, which leads to ............. muscle control.

skeletal, voluntary.

6

Autonomic motor neurons innervate ........... muscle cells, ............ muscle cells, and glands, and produce ............... actions.

cardic, smooth, involuntary.

7

ANS motor neurons do not directly innervate their target like somatic motors neurons; instead, they require the following two neuron circuits:

1. The first neuron is the ............. neuron, which is the initial efferent neuron whose cell body resides within the CNS. All of these axons release the neurotransmitter .................

2. The second is the ............... neuron, whose cell body resides in the autonomic ganglion in the PNS. The axons of these neurons travel to the target cells where they trigger specific changes, either inhibitory or excitatory responses, by releasing specific neurotransmitters, either ............... or
................... .

1. preganglionic neuron, acetylcholine.
2. postganglionic neuron, acetylcholine or epinephrine/noepinephrine

8

The sympathetic nervous system: preganglionic axons are usually .................. and postganglionic axons are usually ...................

short, long

9

Preganglionic cell bodies originate in the .............. and ................. giving rise to the name, .............. division.

thoracic, lumbar, thoracolumbar

10

Sympathetic ganglia are generally located near the ....................., where preganglionic axons synapse with postganglionic neuron cell bodies. Postganglionic axons proceed to the target.

spinal cord

11

This is the " or " division of the ANS because it prepares the body for emergency situations.

fight or flight

12

The parasympathetic nervous system: preganglionic parasympathetic axons are ........... while postganglionic axons are ..............

long, short

13

Preganglionic cell bodies are located within the nuclei of several cranial nerves in the brainstem and the sacral region of the spinal cord giving rise to the name, ............. division.

craniosacral

14

What do the cranial nerves of the parasympathetic division innervate? What do the sacral nerves of this division innervate?

head and neck, structures in the pelvic cavity

15

Cell bodies of postganglionic neurons (in the parasympathetic division) are usually located near the target organ, which requires only a short axon to make the connection.

target organ

16

actions of the parasympathetic division directly antagonize those of the ........... division. Together, these two divisions maintain a delicate balance to ensure that homeostasis is preserved.

sympathetic

17

Name some situations when the sympathetic nervous system is adapted to maintain homeostasis:

experiencing strong emotions, minor physical activitites like standing up.

18

The section of chain ganglia that extends above the thoracic spinal cord terminates in the ............... ganglion. The section of chain that extends below the lumbar spinal cord terminates in the .............. ganglion.

superior cervical, inferior sacral

19

Preganglionic axons quickly separate from the spinal nerve anterior ramus to form a small nerve called the white (myelinated) rami communicantes, which leads to the postganglionic cell bodies found in the ............... chain ganglion.

synaptic chain ganglion

20

Some preganglionic axons pass through the chain ganglia without forming synapses. These may form synapses with ............. ganglia located near the target organ.

collateral ganglia

21

Preganglionic axons that synapse with collateral ganglia near the organs of the abdominopelvic cavity are components of the ................ nerves.

splanchnic nerves

22

The following three synapse options are possible between the pre and postganglionic neuron:

1. Preganglionic axons can synapse with:

2. Preganglionic axons can ascend or descend to synapse with:

3. Preganglionic axons can pass through the chain ganglia and travel to .......... ganglia where they synapse.

1. a postganglionic neuron in the sympathetic chain ganglion
2. in a different chain ganglion
3. collateral

23

where do preganglionic neurons originate?

lateral horn of spinal cord

24

Preganglionic axons quickly separate from the spinal nerve anterior ramus to form a small nerve called ......................, which leads to the postganglionic cell bodies found in the ................. chain ganglion.

white (myelinated) rami communicantes, sympathetic

25

Some preganglionic axons pass through the chain ganglia without forming synapses. These may form synapses with ................. ganglia located near the target organ.

collateral

26

Preganglionic axons that synapse with collateral ganglia near the organs of the abdominopelvic cavity are components of the ............... nerves.

splanchnic

27

Postganglionic axons exit the ganglia as ......................, which reunite to travel with spinal nerves until they reach their target cells.

small gray (unmyelinated) rami communicantes

28

1. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the neurotransmitter used in excitatory synapses between sympathetic .............. axons and ............. neurons.

2. Norepinephrine (noradrenalin) is the most frequently utilized neurotransmitter released into the synapses between .................... axons and target cells.

3. Epinephrine (adrenalin) is the third neurotransmitter that can be released into synapses between .............. axons and target cells.

1. preganglionic, postganglionic
2. postganglionic
3. postganglionic

29

Classes of sympathetic receptors: Adrenergic receptors bind to ................... and ................. The two major types of adrenergic receptors, ....................and .................., are further classified into subtypes.

norepinephrine, epinephrine. Alpha and beta receptors

30

1. Where are alpha-1 receptors located?
2. Where are alpha-2 receptors located?
3. Where are beta-1 receptors located?
4. Where are beta-2 receptors located?
5. Where are beta-3 receptors located?

1. smooth muscle in gastrointestinal tract
2. preganglionic sympathetic neuron (prevents excessive sympathetic activity).
3. cardiac muscle
4. smooth muscle lining lungs
5. digestive tract