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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Articulations Deck (56)
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Describe the three functional joint classifications.

1. Synarthrosis: provide no movement between articulating joints.
2. Amphiarthrosis: allow only a small of movement.
3. Diarthrosis: freely moveable, wide variety of movement.


Describe the 3 structural joint classifications.

1. Fibrous joints are fastened together by dense reg. connective tissue without a joint space between bones. These can be sytnarthrosis or amphiarthrosis functionally.

2. Cartilagenous joints are fastened together by cartilage without a joint space. They are synarthrosis and amphiarthrosis functionally.

3. Synovial joints have hyaline cartilage. Joint space is fluid-filled cavity. They are diarthroses.


What are gomphoses? Describe them.

an immoveable fibrous joint found between teeth and their corresponding alveolus in the maxillary bones.


What are sutures? Describe them.

Fibrous joint between the bones of the cranium. They resemble a closed zipper reinforced by dense reg. connective. They become synarthroses when they fuse.


What are syndesmoses?

Fibrous joint in which the articulating bones are joined by a long interosseous membrane. They allow a little movement, but not much. Are found between radius and ulna, and tibia and fibula. Are considered as amphiartroses.


What are synchondroses? Give some examples.

Consists of bone joined by hyaline cartlage and provides no motion, so are considered synthroses. Examples are:
1. Epiphyseal plates.
2. First sternocostal and costochondral joints.


What is a symphysis?

A joint where bones are joined by a fibrous pad or plug. They provide limited motion, so are considered amphiarthroses. Examples are:
1. Intervertebral discs
2. Pubic symphysis


What is a synovial joint? What are the 3 structural features of the joint/synovial cavity?

Synovial joints are freely moveable joints characterized by the joint cavity, which has the following:
1. articular capsule
2. synovial fluid
3. articular cartilage


What is the inner layer of the joint capsule called? What does it secrete?

synovial membrane. synovial fluid


What are the 3 main functions of synovial fluid?

1. lubrication
2. metabolic functions
3. shock absorption


Articular cartilage is avascular, isolated with the capsule. How does articular cartilage obtain oxygen, nutrients, and remove wastes?

from the synovial fluid


what are other components of synovial joints?

adipose tissue, nerves, and blood vessels.


Since synovial joints are less stable than other types of joints, what 4 other structures help stabilize them?

1. ligaments- attach bone to bone.
2. tendons- attach muscle to bone. Extensions off the muscle and provide for movement.
3. bursa: Little synovial fluid pillows present is high-stress joints. Minimize friction
4. tendon sheaths: are long bursa that protect long tendons


what is arthritis?

is the inflamation of 1 or more joints resulting in pain and decreased ROM. The articular cartilage breaks down and damages the bone.


what are the 3 types of arthritis?

1. Osteoarthritis: most common, enerally associated with wear and tear, injuries, and advanced age, which is characterized by pain, joint stiffness, and lost mobility.

2. Rheumatoid arthritis: associated with joint destruction mediated by the individual’s own immune system.

3. Gouty arthritis causes joint damage by generating an inflammatory reaction to uric acid crystal deposits.


What are the 4 functional classes of synovial joints?

1. nonaxial joints: allow motions to occur, but don't move on an axis (gliding movement, carpals)
2. uniaxial: allow motion around 1 axis (elbow)
3. biaxial: allow motion around 2 axes (metacarpophalangeal joints)
4. multiaxial: allows for movement on 3 axes (shoulder)


What motion decreases the angle between articulating bones by bringing the bones closer to one another? This movement is paired with? Is it angular?

1. Flexion
2. Extension
it is angular


............... increases the angle between articulating bones, which is the opposite of ............., where articulating bones move away from one another. Is it angular?

1. Extension
2. Flexion
it is angular


what is the term for moving a body part away from the midline? What is its opposite?
Is it angular?

1. Abduction
2. Adduction
it is angular


what movements combine to make circumduction? Is it an angular movement?

flexion/extension, and abduction/adduction. It does not have an opposite movement.
It is angular


........... is a nonangular motion in which one bone rotates or twists on an imaginary line running down its middle axis



what is the opposition of the thumb at the 1st carpometacarpal joint, and allows the thumb to move across the palmar surface of the hand. ................. is the opposite movement that returns the thumb to its anatomical position.

1. Opposition
2. Reposition


................ is the movement of a body part in an inferior direction while ............... moves a body part in a superior direction.

1. depression
2. elevation


.............. moves a body part in an anterior direction while .............. moves a body part in a posterior direction.

1. protraction
2. retraction


............. is a rotational motion in which the plantar surface of the foot rotates medially toward the midline of the body. ............... rotates the foot laterally away from the midline

1. inversion
2. eversion


........... is a movement where the angle between the foot and leg. The angle between the foot and leg increases during ...........

1. dorsiflexion
2. plantar


............. and ............. are rotational movements of the wrist and ankle regions

supination, pronation


................ is the amount of movement a joint is capable of under normal circumstances.

Range of motion


What kind of joint is the most simple and least mobile articulation between the flat surfaces of two bones?

A plane joint also known as a gliding joint. Plane joints only allow side to side gliding movements.


In what kind of uniaxial joint does the convex articular surface of one bone interact with the concave depression have a second bone?

Hinge joint. As the name implies the motion of a hinge joint is restricted to movement in only one plane examples are the elbow the knee and inter-phalangeal joint’s of the fingers and toes.