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What is the skeleton system?

groups of bone that work together


How many bones are in the skull, and where are they?

Skull: most complex structure. Has 22 bones (8 cranial, and 14 facial)


The vertebral column has how many bones? How many protect the spinal cord? What are the 2 fused regions?

1. Vertebral column has 33 bones.
2. 24 protect the spinal cord.
3. Sacrum and coccyx are both made up of fused vertebrae.


What is the job of the thoracic cage? How many pairs of ribs are there? What are the other bones in the thoracic cage?

1. protects the lungs, heart, and other delicate contents of the thoracic cavity.
2. 12 pairs of ribs.
3. The sternum, and part of the vertebral column.


What is the axial skeleton?

Forms the longitudinal axis of the body. Consists of the skull, vertebral column, and the thoracic cage. It encases the body's cavities, and protects underlying organs.


What is the appendicular skeleton?

Consists of the bones of upper and lower limbs, and the pectoral and pelvic girdles. Primarily suited for movement, support, and muscle attachment.


The pectoral gridle is composed of the.......... and the ........... And it's job is............. How many bones does it support?

1. clavicle.
2. Scapulae
3. Its job is to support the upper limb, and anchor it to the trunk. Supports 30 bones


The upper limb is composed of the following 3 parts: The arm consisting of.......... The Forearm consisting of............ and .......... and the wrist and hand consisting of ............., ............, and ..........

1. Arm: humerus.
2. Forearm: radius and ulna
3. Wrist and hand: carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.


The pelvic girdle is composed of 2 pelvic bones and the sacrum collectively called the............ Its job is.............

1. Pelvis (made of ilium, ischium, and pubis)
2. Job is to support the lower limb and anchor it to the trunk


The lower limb is composed of the thigh, consisting of the..........., the leg, consisting of the.........., and ..........., and the ankle and foot consisting of the............, ................., and..............

1. femur.
2. tibia and fibula.
3. tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges


What are the functions of
1. Depressions
2. Openings
3. Projections

1. Depressions form articulations, allow for blood vessels & nerves to travel along the bones.
2. Openings enclose delicate structures allowing them to travel through bones.
3. Projections give a place for tendons and ligaments to attach to, and form articulations


What are the cranial bones collectively known as, and how many are there? How many single and how many paired?

The cranium, 8. There are 4 single and 2 pairs


Name the 4 single bones that form the cranium.

1. Frontal
2. occipital
3. ethmoid
4. sphenoid


Name the 2 paired bones that form the cranium.

1. temporal bones
2. parietal bones.


How many facial bones are there? What are they?
(Virgil Is Now Making My Pet Zebra Laugh)

Vomer, Inferior nasal conchae, Nasal, Maxillae, Mandible, Palatine, Zygomatic, Lacrimal


Name the 6 paired facial bones

1. maxillary
2. zygomatic
3. nasal
4. lacrimal
5. palatine
6. inferior nasal conchal bones


What are the 2 unpaired facial bones?

1. mandible
2. vomer


3. All the bones of the skull are fused to one another at immoveable joints called .............., with the exception of the mandible.



Orbits contain the....... The nasal cavity contains the........ The oral cavity contains the......, and the.......

1. eyeballs
2. sensory receptors for smell
3. teeth and tongue


The superior portion of the cranial cavity is called the..........., the inferior portion is called the ........., and is divided into 3 indentations called the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae in which the brain sits

1. cranial vault aka calvarium
2. cranial base


Name the 7 bones that make up the orbit. What does orbit encase?
(Every Student Fancies Learning Zillions More Parts)

1. Ethmoid
2. Sphenoid
3. Frontal
4. Lacrimal
5. Zygomatic
6. Maxilla
7. Palatine
It encases the eyeball, lacrimal gland, and their associated blood vessels and nerves.


The paranasal sinuses are found within what bones?
(For Easier Sinus Memorization)

1. Frontal
2. Ethmoid
3. Shenoid
4. Maxillary


What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses?

Being the first part of the respiratory tract, they filter, humidify, and warm the air. They also make the skull light, and enhance voice resonance.


What is the first part of the digestive tract? What is found there?

The oral cavity. Teeth, tongue, and salivary glands are found there.


What bones make up the oral cavity?

the hard palate (palatine bones), maxillae, and mandible.


What is another name for the soft spots in a fetal skull? What purpose do they serve? When do they fuse?

Fontanels. They give the infants head sufficient flexibility to pass through the mother's vagina. They also allow space for the brain to grow quickly. They fuse between 18-24 months.


What are the names of the fontanels?

anterior fontanel, posterior fontanel, two sphenoid fontanels, and two mastoid fontanels.


The hyoid is a C-shaped bone. Why is the hyoid bone unique?

Its a C-shaped bone in the superior neck. Not a skull bone, but is in close proximity. Not connected to any bones directly, but rather suspended by ligaments to the styloid processes, and voice box. Serves as an attachment site for muscles involved in speech and swallowing.


There are how many cervical vertebrae? How many thoracic vertebrae? How many lumbar vertebrae? How many sacral, and how many coccygeal?

7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacral, and 3-5 fused coccygeal vertebrae.


What spinal curvature is present in a newborn? How does the curvature change as the infant grows?

Born with a c-shaped curvature that grows into an s-shape as the infant grows.