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The central nervous system (CNS) includes the ............. and .............., and is involved in movement, interpreting sensory information, maintaining homeostasis, and functions relating to the mind.

brain and spinal cord


What are the four divisions of the brain?

1. cerebrum
2. diencephalon
3. cerebellum
4. brainstem


The cerebrum, the enlarged superior portion of the brain, is divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Summarize the responsibilities of the cerebrum:

Performs higher mental functions, executing movement, behavior, conscience, attention, processing sensory info, hearing, language, memory, emotion, process visual info, taste.


Which region is functionally the most complex part of the brain that covers the underlying cerebral hemispheres?

The cerebral cortex


The cerebellum, the posterior and inferior portion of the brain, is divided into left and right hemispheres. Summarize the responsibilities of the cerebellum:

coordination of movement


What is the function of the primary motor cortex?

plans and executes movement


What are the functions of the primary sensory cortices at the first regions?

receive and process sensory input


Gross anatomical features of the cerebrum include..........., ............., ...............

sulci (shallow grooves), fissures (deep grooves), and gyri (elevated ridges between sulci)


Name the 5 lobes of each hemisphere of the cerebrum, and what their neurons are responsible for

1. Frontal. planning executing movement. Behavior, conscience, personality
2. Parietal. sensory info
3. Temporal. hearing, language, memory, emotion
4. Occipital. vision
5. Insulas: taste and viscera


Where are the insulas found? What functions are their neurons involved in?

under the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. functions related to taste and visceral organs


The special senses, touch, vision, hearing, smell, and taste, have a primary and a unimodal association area, as does the sense of equilibrium or balance. These areas are found in all the lobes of the cerebral cortex except the .......... lobe.

frontal lobe


What type of somatic sensory information do the two main somatosensory areas, located in the cerebral cortex, deal with?

temperature and touch


Where is the primary somatosensory area (S1) located?

postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe (posterior to the primary motor cortex)


Where is the somatosensory association cortex (S2) located?

posterior to S1


Where is the primary visual cortex located?

What is the function of the primary visual cortex?

posterior end of the occipital lobe. It is the first to receive visual input, and feeds this info to the visual association areas.


What is the function of the visual association areas?

They process color, object movement, and depth


Where is the primary auditory cortex located? What type of information is received by this cortex? Where is this information transferred?

superior temporal lobe. auditory info. Info is transferred to auditory association cortex.


Where is taste information processed?

gustatory cortex


Where are the vestibular areas located? What information do these areas deal with?

parietal and temporal lobes. info pertaining to equilibrium and position


Where is smell information processed?

olfactory cortex


Language areas are processed in the following two areas of the cortex: ............. area, found in the anterolateral frontal lobe, is a premotor area responsible for the ability to produce speech sounds; ............... area (integrative speech area), located in the temporal and parietal lobes, is responsible for the ability to understand language.

Broca's area (produces speech), and Wernicke's area (understanding speech)


The prefrontal cortex occupies most of the frontal lobe and communicates with the ............, other regions of cerebral gray matter, and the association areas located in other lobes.



What are the 5 functions of the prefrontal cortex?

modulating behavior, personality, learning, memory, and psychological state


The parietal and temporal association cortices occupy most of their respective host lobe. Summarize the 5 functions of these association areas:

integration of sensory info, language, maintaining attention, recognition, and spatial awareness


What are the 3 regions of the basale nuclei?

1. Caudate Nucleus
2. Putamen
3. Globus Pallidus


What are the 3 classifications of cerebral white matter?

1. Commissural Fibers: connect R&L hemispheres (corpus callosum)
2. Projection Fibers: connect areas of the same hemisphere
3. Association Fibers


Summarize a possible pathway for information transferred by the conduction of an action potential from one region of the brain to another

1. action potential originates in grey matter.
2. sent to another area of grey matter by projection fibers.
3. sent to neighboring grey matter by association fibers
4. sent to other hemisphere by commissural fibers.


What is included in the limbic system, and what is its function?

limbic lobe, hippocampus, amygdala, fornix.

functions: memory, learning, emotion, and behavior


The diencephalon, deep underneath the cerebral hemispheres, is the central core of the brain. Summarize the responsibilities of the diencephalon, and its components:

Thalamus: controls the cerebral cortex

Hypothalamus: regulates ANS and homeostatic functions

Epithalamus: contains pineal gland, releases melatonin

Subthalamus: works with basale nuclei to control movement


The brainstem connects the brain to the spinal cord. Summarize the responsibilities of the brainstem:

maintenance of heart rate, breathing rhythm, and numerous reflexes that function in movement, sensation, and alertness