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1

Communication

Behavior that affects the behavior of others by the transmission of information.

2

Code

A complex pattern of associations of the units of a communication system. In language, those units could be sound units; meaningful units, such as words; or meaningful units that are larger than words, such as phrases, clauses, and sentences.

3

Encode

To put a message in a code

4

Grammar

System (pattern) of elements (such as words) and of the rules of phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics inherent in a language. The term also refers to the study of those elements and rules.

5

Decode

To react to it in a way that reflects the reason that the sender encoded it

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Phonological system

The grammar (pattern) of sounds of that language

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Lexicon

A mental dictionary, the vocabulary that one has stored in the brain

8

Morphological rules

The rules used to construct words from their component parts

9

Syntax

The set of rules a person uses to form units of language larger than words. The term also refers to the study of those rules.

10

Semantics

The study of meaning

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Linguistic competence

The (mostly) subconscious knowledge of language that allows a speaker to create a potentially infinite number of messages.

12

Productivity

The ability to produce messages that one has never produced before and to understand messages that one has never heard or seen before.

13

Linguistic performance

The application of linguistic competence to actually producing an utterance

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Delivery system of language

The way in which knowledge of language (linguistic competence) is used to send a message. The three basic ways of delivering a message linguistically are speech, writing, and sign language.

15

Verbal

Language: speech, writing, or sign language

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Nonverbal

Any communication that is not conveyed through speech, writing, or sign language

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Synchrony

The connection and relationship between two or more things that occur at the same time

18

Culture shock

The disorientation and anxiety that occur when social expectation are not met

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Ethnocentrism

Judging other cultures by the standard of your culture; it is also the belief that your culture is superior to other cultures

20

Pheromone

A chemical that is secreted by one individual and acts from a distance on another individual to alter that individual's behavior.

21

Redundancy

When the same message (or elements of a message) is encoded in different ways and is simultaneously sent to the receiver of the message.

22

Sound spectrograph

An instrument used to analyze sound by producing a visual record of the time duration of the sound, its frequency (number of occurrences within a specific unit of time), and its amplitude (degree of loudness).

23

Calls

Usually relatively short vocal signals that might communicate a variety of messages. A variety of other species might respond to the calls of a given species.

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Songs

Longer and more complex sequences of sound that, in birds, are usually associated with attracting a mate. Songs are species specific.

25

Openness

The ability to add new words, phrases, or other meaningful units to a language.

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Discrete signal

One that does not blend with other signals.

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Arbitrary

In relationship to language, means that features of language, such as words, have no direct relationship to their meaning.

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Stimulus-bound

Behavior is one that occurs only as a result of a specific environment trigger (occurrence).

29

Displacement

The ability to communicate about things at times other than the present and to communicate about things not directly in front of the sender and/or receiver.

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Prevarication

In the linguistic sense, refers to the ability to communicate about things that are not verifiable, things for which there is no proof.