Chapter 4 - The Morphological Component Flashcards Preview

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1

Morphemes

The smallest units of meaning; therefore they cannot be broken down further and remain meaningful.

2

Morphology

The study of the structure and classification of words and the units that make up words.

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Bound morpheme

A meaningful grammatical unit that cannot occur alone.

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Free morpheme

A meaningful grammatical unit that can stand alone.

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Root

A morpheme, usually but not always a free morpheme, that serves as a building block for other words and carries the main meaning of those words.

6

Affix

A bound morpheme that can be added to a root.

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Prefix

An affix added to the beginning of the root.

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Suffix

An affix added to the end of a root.

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Compound

A word made up of two or more roots.

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Closed-form compound

A compound word with no space or hyphen between the different roots.

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Hyphenated compound

A compound that has a hyphen or hyphens between the different roots of the compound.

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Open-form compound

Has spaces between its roots.

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Head of a compound

The core meaning of the compound; also determines the grammatical function of the compound.

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Lexical categories

Major grammatical classes into which words (not morphemes) can be divided.

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Parts of speech

A system of grammatical categories for classifying words according to their usage or function.

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Derivational morphemes

Bound morphemes that change the meaning or lexical category of a word.

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Inflectional morphemes

Bound morphemes that do not change the essential meaning or lexical category of a word. They change grammatical functions (other than lexical category).

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Morphrophonemic rules

Rules that specify which allomorph of a morpheme will be used in a specific phonetic environment.

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Typology

A branch of linguistics that studies the structural similarities of languages.

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Morphological typology

The study and classification of language based on how morphemes create words.

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Analytic (or isolating) language

A language in which most words are single morphemes.

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Synthetic language

Uses bound morphemes to affect the meaning or mark the grammatical function of a free morpheme.

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Fusional (inflectional) language

One type of synthetic language in which one bound morpheme may convey several bits of information.

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Agglutinating language

A type of synthetic language in which each bound morpheme adds only one specific meaning to the root morpheme.

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Polysynthetic language

A synthetic language in which each word is the equivalent to a whole sentence in other languages.

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Open classes of words (content words)

Types of words (nouns, adjectives,verbs, and adverbs) that grow in number in a language.

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Closed classes of words (function words)

Types of words (prepositions and pronouns) the growth of which is very limited.

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Neologisms

Newly formed words

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Compounding

Creating a word with more than one root.

30

Acronyms

Words that are formed from the first letter or letters of more than one word.