Chapter 5 - Syntax Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Syntax Deck (68)
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1

Syntax

A level of grammar that specifically refers to the arrangement of words and morphemes in the construction of sentences.

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Descriptive syntax (grammar)

The mostly subconscious rules of a language that one uses to combine smaller units.

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Prescriptive syntax (grammar)

The concept that there is a correct and incorrect way to speak, write, or sign.

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Transformation (generative) grammar

A syntax model that includes a finite set of rules that could hypothetically produce (generate) an infinite number of utterances.

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Sentence

A string of words that is grammatically complete with at least two components: a subject and a predicate.

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Constituents

Units combined to create larger syntactic constructions

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Subject

Topic of the sentence

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Predicate

A comment or assertion made about the topic

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Simple sentence

A sentence with one subject and one predicate

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Compound sentence

Two simple sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction; in writing, punctuation can substitute for the conjunction.

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Independent clause

A simple sentence

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Dependent clause

A subject and predicate but cannot stand alone as a simple sentence; it must depends on an independent clause to make it complete.

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Complex sentence

A simple sentence and one or more dependent clauses

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Compound-complex sentence

Two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause

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Phrase

Any constituent of a clause

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Head of a phrase

The word that determines the syntactic or phrasal category of that phrase

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Dependents of a phrase

All parts of a phrase that are not its head

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Specifier

Makes the meaning of the head more precise

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Complements

Provide further information about the head

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Noun phrase

Does the work of a noun

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Determiner

A word used before a noun to indicate whether the noun refers to something that is specific or general.

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Verb phrase

It includes a verb and can include an auxiliary verb, direct or indirect object, and modifiers.

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Adjective phrase

Headed by an adjective but might also include an adjective modifier.

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Adverb phrase

A modifier of a verb

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Prepositional phrase

It can function to modify a noun phrase or a verb phrase.

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Grammatical (well-formed)

A sentence in which sequence of words conforms to the syntactic knowledge (rules) of native speakers of a language.

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Ungrammatical (ill-formed)

A sentence in which the sequence of words does not conform to the syntactic knowledge (rules) of fluent speakers of a language.

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Constituents

Units combined to create larger syntactic constructions

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Subject

Topic of the sentence

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Predicate

A comment or assertion made about the topic