Chapter 3 - The Phonological Component: Phonology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - The Phonological Component: Phonology Deck (34)
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1

Phonology

The study of the sound system of a language; that is, what sounds are in a language and what the rules are for combining those sounds into larger units.

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Phone or phonetic unit or segment

An actual speech sound produced by the vocal tract that is perceived as an individual and unique sound, different from other such sounds

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Phoneme

A perceived unit of language that signals a difference in meaning when contrasted to another phoneme

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Allophone

A variation of a phoneme: different allophones of a phoneme occur in different and predictable phonetic environments

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Distinctive

Refers to units that contrast; that is change meaning when substituted for each other.

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Etic

Refers to a study done by a cultural outsider using categories and concepts that might not have meaning to the people being studied

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Emic

Refers to categories and concepts that have meaning to the people being studied

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Utterance

A stretch of speech between two periods of silence or a potential (perceived) silence

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Corpus

A collection of linguistic information used to discover linguistics rules and principles

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Minimal pair

Made up of two forms (words, phrases, sentences) that differ in meaning, contain the same number of sound segments, and display only one phonetic difference, which occurs at the same place in the form

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Minimal set

Made up of more than two forms (words, phrases, sentences) that differ in meaning, contain the same number of sound segments, and display only one phonetic difference, which occurs at the same place in the form

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Complementary distribution

Means that each of a series of sounds occurs in different phonetic contexts and these sounds never contrast with each other.

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Overlapping distribution

Characteristic of different phones that appear in most of the same phonetic environments.

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Substitution frame

A form that has a "slot"that can be filled in with different items, and is used to identify different phonemes

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Free variation

A condition in which phonetically different sounds (phonemes or allophones) may occur in the same environment without changing meaning

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Narrow transcription (phonetic transcription)

Represents the actual sounds that a person utters in as much detail as possible

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Broad transcription (phonemic transcription)

Represents the idealized sounds, which are actually classes of sounds (the class being made up of allophones) rather than physically real speech sounds

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Distinctive feature

Any trait that distinguishes one phoneme from another

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Binary system

A classification system in which a feature is either present or absent.

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Feature matrix

Lists sound segments (or other phenomena) along the horizontal axis, and features on the vertical axis.

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Natural class

A subset of the total set of phonemes that shares a small number of phonetic (distinctive) features, which distinguishes itself from others.

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Phonotactics

An area of phonology that studies the combinations of phonemes that are allowed (or conversely restricted) in the formation of syllables, consonant clusters, and sequences of vowels.

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Obligatory phonological process

A rule that most native speakers of a specific language apply to make a string of phonetic units easier to pronounce and perceive.

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Optional phonological process

A pattern that is applied by individuals or groups of individuals and is not necessarily characteristic of most native speakers of a language; it is stylistic.

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Assimilation

The obligatory phonological process that makes it easier to pronounce combinations of sounds by making those sounds share a distinctive feature that in other environments one of the sounds would not have.

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Manner assimilation

Involves making a string of sounds easier to pronounce by making one of them conform to the manner of articulation of the other.

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Voice assimilation

Occurs when a sound coming to agree with a surrounding sound in its voicing.

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Devoice

When a sound loses its voiced feature because of a voiceless sound or sounds in its phonetic environment.

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Place assimilation

When adjacent sounds are made to agree in their place of articulation.

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Change in syllabicity

Involves an alternative pronunciation of a syllable from an idealized pronunciation.