Chapter 6 - Semantics and Pragmatics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Semantics and Pragmatics Deck (25)
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1

Semantics

The study of the meaning of linguistic expressions, such as morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

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Pragmatics

The study of the effect of context on meaning

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Lexical semantics

The branch of semantics that deals with the meaning of words

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Structural semantics

The branch of semantics that deals with the meaning of utterances larger than words

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Lexicon

The mental dictionary each person has that contains the definitions of all the words that person knows.

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Referent

The actual concrete item or concept to which the word refers

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Referential meaning

Describes the referent, an action, or a state of being

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Sense

The extended meaning of a word or phrase that, in context, clarifies the referent

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Shifting referents

Referents that are different for each speaker and each sentence

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Semantic properties

The elements of meaning that make up the lexical entry of the word in the speaker's mind

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Semantic domain

A set of words that share semantic properties

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Distinctive feature analysis

The process of analyzing the semantic properties of a word

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Markedness

The concept that some words or morphemes are more common or usual than others (actor/actress, lion/lioness)

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Hyponyms

More specific words that constitute a subclass of a more general word

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Synonyms

Words that have similar meanings and share the same semantic properties

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Denotation

The referential meaning of the word or morpheme, often the first meaning listed in a dictionary

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Connotation

A shade of meaning for a word or morpheme

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Homonyms

Words that sound the same

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Polysemous

Words have more than one meaning

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Antonyms

Words that are opposite in one of their semantic properties

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Complementary pairs

Antonyms that express a binary relationship such as the words male/female

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Gradable pairs

Antonyms, such as big/little, that are part of a larger set of related words and express the concept that one of them is more whereas the other is less

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Relational opposites

Antonyms that express a symmetrical relationship between two words, such as teacher/student

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Structural semantics

The study of how the structure of sentences contributes to meaning

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Contradictions

Utterances in which the the