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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (55):
1

Treactive to stimuli from nervous system or environment, generate electrical mechanical response

excitability

2

cells actively shorten (contract) upon stimulation, generates tension

contractility

3

cells can length (extend) when pulled

extensibility

4

tendency to rebound (recoil) to some resting length after contraction or extension

elasticity

5

multinucleate
voluntary movement
no center nucleus
striated pattern
long, cylindrical

skeletal muscle

6

intercalated discs
uninucleate cells, central
branching pattern
involuntary
walls of heart
striations

cardiac muscle

7

spindle=shaped
no striations
central nucleus
form layers/sheets of cells
involuntary
blood vessels, hollow organs

smooth

8

surrounded by epimysium.
bundle of fascicles, each surrounded by perimysium

whole muscle

9

bundle of cells, each surrounded by endmysium

fascicle

10

contains cylindrical bundles of proteins

cell

11

bundle of proteins

myofibril

12

surrounds the whole skeletal muscle

epimysium

13

surrounds the muscle fascicle (group of cells)

perimysium

14

surrounds the cells within the muscle fascicle

endomysium

15

functions of skeletal muscle

body movement
posture
temperature regulation
storage and movement of materials
support

16

multiple fascicles housing many muscle fibers, connective tissue coverings, blood vessels, nerve fibers

muscle
covered by epimysium

17

a bundle of muscle fibers separated from other bundles of fibers by a dense irregular connective tissue covering

fascicle
covered by perimysium

18

elongated, multinucleate, cylindrical fiber, contains myofibrils, separated from other fibers

muscle fiber
covered by endomysium

19

long, cylindrical contractile element within muscle fiber; composed of myofilaments; exhibits striations

myofibril

20

short contractile proteins of two types: thick (myosin) and thin (actin, tropomyosin, and troponin)

myofilaments

21

attaches muscle to bone

tendon

22

tendon forms a thin, flattened sheet

aponeurosis

23

less mobile attachment

origin

24

more mobile attachment

insertion

25

plasma membrane of a muscle fiber

sarcolemma

26

cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

sarcoplasm

27

smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a muscle fiber
stores Ca2+ for muscle contraction

sarcoplasmic reticulum

28

expanded ends of the sarcoplasmic reticulum that are in contact with the transverse tubules

terminal cisternae

29

narrow, tubular extensions of the sarcolemma into the sarcoplasm, contacting the terminal cisternae; wrapped around myofibrils

transverse tubules

30

protein myofilament composed of myosin

thick filament

31

protein myofilament composed of actin, troponin, and tropomyosin

thin filament

32

alternating arrangement of thick and thin filaments give what appearance?

striations

33

where are the myosin held together at?

M line on thick myofilaments

34

where are the actin held together?

Z line on thin filaments

35

sacromeres are arranged in series from what line to what line?

Z to Z line

36

The skeletal muscle is surrounded by what layer?

epimysium

37

The muscle fascicle is surrounded by what layer?

perimysium

38

The muscle fiber is surrounded by what layer?

endomysium

39

the myofibril is surrounded by what layer

sarcoplasmic reticulum
-consists of sarcomeres (Z to Z)

40

neurons that are connected to skeletal muscle cells are

motor neurons

41

place where neuron connects to muscle cell

neuromuscular junction

42

motor unit

the neuron + muscle cells it controls

43

what causes the release of calcium

stimulation of a muscle cell by a motor neuron from the SR into the cytoplasm

44

calcium triggers?

a cycle of activity (called the cross bridge cycle) that will bring Z lines of sarcomeres closer together

45

cross bridge cycling

involves interaction of muscle proteins (actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin) and requires ATP for energy

46

type 1 fibers

slow, oxidative
-small, slower contracting, dark (red), good at aerobic metabolism (fatigue resistant), low force generation

47

type 2B fibers

fast, glycolytic
-big fast contracting, pale (white), good at anaerobic metabolism (easily fatigued), high force generation

48

type 2A fibers

fast, oxidative
-somewhere in between "intermediate", fast contracting but somewhat fatigue resistant, medium force generation

49

circular pattern

orbicularis
around an opening, sphincter

50

parallel pattern

run parallel to long axis of muscle
biceps brachii muscle

51

convergent muscle

fibers converge on single tendon and muscle often triangular
pectoralis muscles

52

pennate

fibers attached to tendon at oblique angle; like a feather
unipennate: extensor digitorum muscle
bipennate: rectus femoris muscle
multi: deltoid muscle

53

characteristics of cardiac muscle

-electrically interconnected with one another
-intercalated discs contain ion channels
-electrical activity can easily spread from cell to cell

54

characteristics of smooth muscles

-cells arranged in sheets (not bundles)
-spindle shaped
-one nucleus
-actin is attached to dense bodies
-myosin scattered throughout cell
-adjacent cells bound together physically and are electrically coupled

55

contraction of smooth muscle

-causes shortening and twisting
-contraction slow, smooth, sustained and resistant to fatigue
-involuntarily controlled