Chapter 10 - Drugs mentioned during lecture Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Chapter 10 - Drugs mentioned during lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Drugs mentioned during lecture Deck (27):
1

Chemosis

Swollen, puffy eye

2

Pannus

*Cyclosporine may be used for Tx
A condition in which a layer of vascular fibrous tissue extends over the surface of an organ or other specialized anatomical structure, especially the cornea.

3

Anterior uveitis

Constricted pupil
Hypotensive or soft eyeball

4

Fluorescein stain - diagnostic agent

*Great tool to diagnose corneal ulcer and/or lacerations
*Comes in sterile strips
*Vital stain goes to live tissue and stains it
*Does not stain cornea or dead tissue
*Also used to diagnose patency of nasolacrimal outflow duct

5

Topical Anesthesia for Cornea

*Proparacaine HCl (eye drops; quick acting cornea numbness)
*Tetracaine HCl (eye drops; short duration of anesthesia; may be more irritating than Proparacaine

6

Schirmer's Tear Test - diagnostic agent

*Paper strips to measure tear production
*Insert edge of strip near the lateral canthus of eye and adjacent to conjunctiva
*After x amount of time read off result in mm

7

Mydriasis

Excessive dilation of pupil due to disease, trauma or the use of drugs

8

Mydriatic drugs

*Cyclopentolate (Cyclogyl)
- used for diagnostic purposes
- never use in animals with glaucoma (due to increase in IOP)
*Atropine Sulfate (Atrophate)
- pain control due to corneal and/or uveal disease
- used for ophthalmic exams or surgery

9

Corneal Rx - drops vs. ointments

Drops:
- Easier administration
Ointments:
- Act of duration better

10

Corneal Rx - eye lubricants

***Always lube eyes during SX***
Various products:
*Puralube Vet Ointment (lipid helps eye not to dry out during Sx)
*Terramycin
*Gentamicin Sulfate
*Tobramycin

11

Corneal Rx - Dry Eyes (KCS)

KCS = KeratoConjunctivitis Sicca
- bug eyed dogs are more prone to this
- owner compliance a major issue, otherwise highly treatable
*Cyclosporine (Restasis)
- immuno-suppressive category
*Artificial Tears Ointment
*Equate Artificial Tears
*Major LiquiTears

12

Tonometry tools to find IOP

IOP = Intra-occular pressure
*TonoVet - puff of air
*TonoPen - touches cornea (apply anesthetic first)
*Schiotz Tonometer - history/no longer used

13

#1 breed to suffer from glaucoma

Basset Hound

14

Glaucoma - Tx of choice

*Dehydrate eye to reduce elevated IOP
*Apply miotic drop to constrict pupil and open up outflow channel for aqueous humor

15

How do you measure glaucoma?

Using U/S to measure iris angle helps to diagnose narrow or wide angle glaucoma

16

Miosis

Constriction (excessive, or sometimes abnormal) of the pupil of the eye

17

Miotic drug

*Pilocarpine HCl
- cholinergic agonist
- used in Tx of canine primary glaucoma
- used orally as primary Tx of neurogenic KCS in dogs

18

Otorrhea

Pus/discharge from ear

19

Otitis Externa

*Clinical signs:
- Inflamed
- Pus
- Smell
- Hot
- Painful
- Uni- or bilateral
*Treat and kill it (don't let it become embedded)
*If left untreated, cartilage in ear can mineralize, animal loses hearing, this is irreversible
*Owner compliance a MUST

20

#1 offender of otitis externa

Malassezia pachydermatis (yeast fungus)

21

Define TECA

*Total Ear Canal Ablation
Salvage procedure
Take out ear
Not done in general practice (referral)

22

Otic Cleaning/Drying

Alternative option:
*Diluted white vinegar
Drug options:
*Nolvasan Otic
*Zymox Ear Cleanser
*VET Ear Cleansing Solution

23

Dr. Crane's choice for Tx of acute or chronic otitis

*MalAcetic Ultra Otic (pH adjuster to acidify environment, as yeast hates low pH - adjust pH to about "5")

24

Otic Antifungal

Ketoconazole
- ceramide removes oil and waxes/lyses it for removal w/sucker
- QTip
- Cottonballs

25

Otic Topical Antibacterials

Use the following after thoroughly cleaning the ear and educating the owner on importance of regular ear cleanings:
*Baytril Otic (very popular)
*Panalog (time-honored, but not as strong)
*Mometamax
*Otomax Ear Drops Suspension
*Metacam
*DermaVet (anti-microbic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory)

26

Topical Otic Antiparasites

*Acarexx Otic Suspension
- treats ear mites
- highly dilute ivermectin (0.01%)
*Revolution
- another option
*Mineral oil
- alternative, cheaper option
- owner compliance a MUST
- 2x/day for 2 weeks
- oil plugs up respiratory tract in mites

27

Facts on ear mites

- highly contagious
- mites are arachnids (8 legs, no wings)
- mineral oil plugs up respiratory tract of mites
- mite feces (digested blood) looks like "black stuff"