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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Drugs mentioned during lecture Deck (18):

Blood glucose regulation

- INSULIN secreted in response to increasing blood glucose levels (causes deposits of glucose and fat)
- Insulin drives down blood sugar
- GLUCAGON secreted in response to hypoglycemia to mobilize glucose
- Glucagon hormone tells body we need more glucose


Diabetes mellitus (DM)

Type I
- low/no levels of insulin production
Type II
- insulin is produced but cell receptors are refractory or blocked


Testing for glucose curves (timed test)

Animal stays for the day
Place catheter
Draw blood at 8AM, e.g.
Feed meal
Draw more blood at certain time intervals
Compare results


Options for insulin choice

Porcine insulin similar to canine & human insulin
Bovine insulin similiar to feline insulin
*VETSULIN (porcine insulin zinc suspension)
*Glargine (new, up to 48hrs of activity


How to select insulin

Amino acid sequence
Onset of action
Duration of action
Dosing accuracy & convenience


Insulin Onset/Duration of action

Frequently used are NPH and PZI
*Regular insulin
- for emergency hyperglycemia (IV w/fluids)
- quick onset
- short duration
*Intermediate acting insulin
- NPH and Lente are given SQ
- Duration of action 6-24 hours
- may need to be given 3x/day or all day
*Long acting insulin
- Protamine zinc (PZI)
- Approx. 6-24 hrs of action
- less available, MAY last up to 36 hrs


Insulin awareness

- expressed in units/mL
- ALWAYS match concentration to syringe
- NEVER shake...mix by rolling between hands
- Refrigerate but NEVER freeze
- Insulin is cloudy, except for regular insulin


Hypothyroid treatment for dogs

- synthetic T4
- Thyroxin replacement therapy
- dose 0.1 - 1 mg


Hyperthyroid treatment for cats

*I131 Sodium iodide (radioactive isotope)
*Tapazole (Antithyroid)
*Prescription diet y/d
- cats suffering from hyperthyroid are usually older, skinny, greasy, stink


What happens if you have too much aldosterone or glucocorticoid?

You'll show signs of cushing's disease (hyperadrenocorticism); this may happen as a side effect of taking prednisone
- Skin changes


How do you treat Cushing's disease?

*Adrenocorticolytics (destroys the cells)


Name 2 adrenocorticolytics

*Trilostane (Vetoryl)
- not actually a lytic drug, instead it inhibits one of the conversion steps in the synthesis of cortisol
- less toxicity
- doesn't have to given for life
- probably BEST CHOICE
*Mitotane (Lysodren)
- oldest
- least desirable
- dose-dependent
- goes to adrenal cortex, potential to kill too many cells which would create Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism)


Birth control in cattle, for example

*Dinoprost (Lutalyse)
- destroys corpus luteum
- new eggs able to develop
- all cows are now on same schedule and can be fertilized and calved at the same time = better farm mgmt


Surpressing estrus not fertility

*Megestrol acetate (Ovaban)
*Cheque drops (synthetic progesterone molecule)
- postpone estrus (ovaries do not grow follicles and ovulation ceases)
- alleviate false pregnancies
- treat behavior problems in cats
- may result in hyperglycemia


What does "gest" signal?

You are dealing with a progestin or progesterone product


Drug used to get horses and hogs on human schedule

Regumate Equine


What does oxytocin do and when would you use it?

* Oxytocin ("feel good hormone") is naturally produced in the pituitary gland
* May be given by injection or snorted
* Has direct effects on the uterine muscle (myometrium)
* Causes milk letdown
* Restarts uterine contractions
* May assist with dystocia, HOWEVER:
- extreme care should be taken to ensure there is no mechanical blockage of the birth canal (malpresentation, dead neonate,...) as this could result in uterine rupture


How to dry off a lactating mom?

Give estrogen