Chapter 14 - Review Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Review Questions Deck (35):
1

Pain sensation arises in free nerve endings called ...

Nociceptors

2

List some signs associated with pain in animals.

Increased HR
Increased RR
Vocalization
Guarding the painful site
Restlessness
Salivation
Failure to groom
Unresponsiveness
Abnormal gait
Abnormal stance
Rolling

3

NSAIDs that preferentially inhibit ... are thought to produce fewer GI side effects.

COX-2 (an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain)

4

What is the most common side effect of the NSAIDs?

GI ulceration and/or bleeding

5

Why are cats so susceptible to aspirin overdose?

Cats metabolize aspirin very slowly.

6

Phenylbutazone should be administered parenterally by the SQ route only.
a. True
b. False

b. False

7

What Class II opioid is administered via transdermal patch?

Fentanyl

8

Corticosteroid therapy involves Tx of the signs of disease and often cures the disease as well.
a. True
b. False

b. False

9

What function do mineralocorticoids serve in the body?

These substances regulate electrolyte and water balance in the body.

10

List some principles that should be followed concerning corticosteroid therapy.

- Alternate-day dosing may help prevent
iatrogenic hypoadrenocorticism;
- Administration should be tapered off gradually;
- Very large doses may be used in
certain emergency situations;
- Corticosteroids should be avoided when corneal ulcers are treated;
- Use aseptic technique when injecting into joints

11

What does the term iatrogenic mean?

"Caused by the doctor"

12

Describe the side effects of short-term and long-term corticosteroid use.

Short-term effects of corticosteroid use include:
- Polyuria
- Polydipsia
- Polyphagia
- Delayed healing
Long-term effects of corticosteroid use include:
- Thinning of the skin
- Gastric ulcers
- Osteoporosis
- Iatrogenic Cushing’s disease

13

What is the mechanism of action of local anesthetic agents?

Local anesthetics prevent generation and
conduction of nerve impulses by peripheral
nerves.

14

What are some indications for the use of local anesthetics?

Local anesthetics are used for:
- Infiltrating into local areas for suturing wounds
- For nerve blocks (lameness examination)
- For anti-arrhythmic effects
- For topical use
- Others

15

The body is able to produce its own opiate-like analgesic agents called ...
a. histamine
b. endorphins
c. prostaglandins
d. cytokines

b. endorphins

16

A substance that can initiate a fever is called a(n) ...
a. prostaglandin
b. endorphin
c. pyrogen
d. pyometra

c. pyrogen

17

... is also known as acetylsalicyclic acid.
a. Phenylbutazone
b. Aspirin
c. DMSO
d. Acetaminophen

b. Aspirin

18

... is a pyrazolone derivative.
a. Phenylbutazone
b. Carprofen
c. Etodolac
d. Deramaxx

a. Phenylbutazone

19

Flunixin meglumine is a(n) ...
a. propionic acid derivative
b. antihistamine
c. muscle relaxant
d. NSAID

d. NSAID

20

DMSO causes ... when applied topically.
a. vasoconstriction
b. vasodilation

b. vasodilation

21

... is considered (even today) to be one of the most effective of the opioids.
a. Fentanyl
b. Morphine
c. Tepoxalin
d. Carprofen

b. Morphine

22

... is (are) a major chemical mediator(s) of the allergic rsponse.
a. Histamine
b. Prostaglandins
c. Pyrogens
d. Hormones

a. Histamine

23

All of the following are corticosteroids except ...
a. dexamethasone
b. Predef
c. Vetalog
d. ketoprofen

d. ketoprofen
NSAID
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory

24

A local anesthetic such as lidocaine may be the drug of choice when an epidural is performed to replace a prolapsed uterus in a bovine.
a. True
b. False

a. True

25

List the four steps involved in the production of pain sensation.

1. Transduction
2. Transmission
3. Modulation
4. Perception

26

Define windup as it applies to pain production.

Central sensitization/hyperalgesia due to
repeated stimulation of neurons of the
spinothalamic tract

27

Pain resulting from tissue injury is called ... pain.

pathologic

28

Pain arising from abdominal or thoracic organs is called ... pain.

visceral

29

List a class of drugs that would alter pain recognition and perception.

Opioids

30

Pain control that utilizes a combination of drugs acting at different sites in the pain production pathways is called ... therapy.

multimodal

31

An 80-lb dog will be treated with carprofen for osteoarthritis at 4.4 mg/kg once a day. Rimadyl chewable tablets (100 mg) will be used.
How many tablets will you give with each dose?

1.5 tablets

32

A 13-lb cat will be treated for acute musculoskeletal pain with robenacoxib at 1mg/kg once a day for 5 days. Onsior tablets (6mg/tab) will be used.
How many tablets will you dispense?

5 tablets

33

An 8-lb cat will be treated for postsurgical pain with buprenorphine at a dosage of 0.02mg/kg. Buprenex injectable (0.3mg/mL) will be given by buccal administration. How much Buprenex will you draw up?

0.24mL

34

A 1200-lb horse will be treated for acute abdominal pain with flunixin meglumine at 1.1mg/kg IV. Banamine injection (50mg/mL) will be used.
How much will you draw up?

12mL

35

Prepare a Morphine CRI for a 30-lb dog scheduled for an amputation. The morphine (15mg/mL) will be given at a dosage of 2mcg/kg/min. It will be added to a 500 mL bag of saline and the mixture infused at a rate of 30mL/hr.
What volume of morphine will you draw up to add to the saline?

1.8mL