Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Review Questions Deck (35):
Pain sensation arises in free nerve endings called ...
List some signs associated with pain in animals.
Guarding the painful site
Failure to groom
NSAIDs that preferentially inhibit ... are thought to produce fewer GI side effects.
COX-2 (an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain)
What is the most common side effect of the NSAIDs?
GI ulceration and/or bleeding
Why are cats so susceptible to aspirin overdose?
Cats metabolize aspirin very slowly.
Phenylbutazone should be administered parenterally by the SQ route only.
What Class II opioid is administered via transdermal patch?
Corticosteroid therapy involves Tx of the signs of disease and often cures the disease as well.
What function do mineralocorticoids serve in the body?
These substances regulate electrolyte and water balance in the body.
List some principles that should be followed concerning corticosteroid therapy.
- Alternate-day dosing may help prevent
- Administration should be tapered off gradually;
- Very large doses may be used in
certain emergency situations;
- Corticosteroids should be avoided when corneal ulcers are treated;
- Use aseptic technique when injecting into joints
What does the term iatrogenic mean?
"Caused by the doctor"
Describe the side effects of short-term and long-term corticosteroid use.
Short-term effects of corticosteroid use include:
- Delayed healing
Long-term effects of corticosteroid use include:
- Thinning of the skin
- Gastric ulcers
- Iatrogenic Cushing’s disease
What is the mechanism of action of local anesthetic agents?
Local anesthetics prevent generation and
conduction of nerve impulses by peripheral
What are some indications for the use of local anesthetics?
Local anesthetics are used for:
- Infiltrating into local areas for suturing wounds
- For nerve blocks (lameness examination)
- For anti-arrhythmic effects
- For topical use
The body is able to produce its own opiate-like analgesic agents called ...
A substance that can initiate a fever is called a(n) ...
... is also known as acetylsalicyclic acid.
... is a pyrazolone derivative.
Flunixin meglumine is a(n) ...
a. propionic acid derivative
c. muscle relaxant
DMSO causes ... when applied topically.
... is considered (even today) to be one of the most effective of the opioids.
... is (are) a major chemical mediator(s) of the allergic rsponse.
All of the following are corticosteroids except ...
A local anesthetic such as lidocaine may be the drug of choice when an epidural is performed to replace a prolapsed uterus in a bovine.
List the four steps involved in the production of pain sensation.
Define windup as it applies to pain production.
Central sensitization/hyperalgesia due to
repeated stimulation of neurons of the
Pain resulting from tissue injury is called ... pain.
Pain arising from abdominal or thoracic organs is called ... pain.
List a class of drugs that would alter pain recognition and perception.
Pain control that utilizes a combination of drugs acting at different sites in the pain production pathways is called ... therapy.
An 80-lb dog will be treated with carprofen for osteoarthritis at 4.4 mg/kg once a day. Rimadyl chewable tablets (100 mg) will be used.
How many tablets will you give with each dose?
A 13-lb cat will be treated for acute musculoskeletal pain with robenacoxib at 1mg/kg once a day for 5 days. Onsior tablets (6mg/tab) will be used.
How many tablets will you dispense?
An 8-lb cat will be treated for postsurgical pain with buprenorphine at a dosage of 0.02mg/kg. Buprenex injectable (0.3mg/mL) will be given by buccal administration. How much Buprenex will you draw up?
A 1200-lb horse will be treated for acute abdominal pain with flunixin meglumine at 1.1mg/kg IV. Banamine injection (50mg/mL) will be used.
How much will you draw up?