Chapter 7 - Review Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Review Questions Deck (40):
1

Why is the heart considered to be two pumps functionally?

The right atrium and right ventricle serve
functionally as one pump for ejecting blood
to the lungs, and the left atrium and left
ventricle pump blood to the systemic
circulation.

2

Cardiac cells are connected by intercalated disks and a fusion of cell membranes to form a ....

Syncytium (interconnected mass)

3

Depolarization of cardiac cells is characterized by a rapid influx of .... ions, a slower influx of .... ions, and the outflow of ... ions.

Sodium (Na+)
Calcium (Ca2+)
Potassium (K+)

4

A relatively long .... .... is important to cardiac cells to prevent constant state of contraction from recycling impulses.

Refractory period

5

Define chronotropic and inotropic effects in relation to the heart.

Chronotropic refers to the rate of contraction.
Inotropic refers to the force or strength of contraction.

6

Define preload and afterload in relation to the pumping mechanism of the heart.

Preload is the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole (the amount of blood that must be pumped out). Afterload is the resistance in the arteries that the ventricle must overcome to pump blood.

7

List the four basic compensatory mechanisms of the CV system.

*Increasing the heart rate
*Increasing the stroke volume
*Increasing the efficiency of the heart muscle
*Heart enlargement

8

List five objectives of treatment for heart failure.

*Control rhythm disturbances
*Maintain or increase cardiac output
*Relieve fluid accumulations
*Increase the oxygenation of blood
*Provide oxygen/sedatives

9

List four beneficial effects and one potential toxic effect of the use of the cardiac glycosides.

Beneficial effects include:
*Improved cardiac contractility
*Decreased heart rate
*Antiarrhythmic effect
*Decreased signs of dyspnea.
A toxic effect is:
*Vomiting

10

Catecholamines such as epinephrine are used in veterinary cardiology primarily for ...

Stimulation of cardiac contraction in cardiac
arrest

11

List five factors that may predispose the heart to arrhythmias.

*Conditions that cause hypoxia
*Electrolyte imbalances
*Increased levels of sensitivity to catecholamines
*Certain drugs such as digitalis, barbiturates, and others
*Cardiac trauma or disease

12

List six categories of antiarrhythmic drugs and give an example of each.

Class IA—Quinidine
Class IB—Lidocaine
Class IC—Flecainide
Class II—Propranolol
Class III—Bretylium
Class IV—Diltiazem

13

List four vasodilator drugs and classify each as arteriolar dilator, venodilator, or mixed.

Hydralazine - arteriolar dilator
Nitroglycerin - venodilator
Prazosin - combined
Enalapril - combined

14

Why is Lasix sometimes called a loop diuretic?

Lasix is called a loop diuretic because it inhibits reabsorption of sodium in the loops of Henle.

15

The use of many diuretics can lead to a dangerous loss of what electrolyte?

Potassium

16

List five ancillary methods of Tx for CV disease.

Bronchodilation
Oxygen therapy
Sedation
Aspiration
Centesis (Pulmonary edema and/or ascites)

17

... is characterized by the rapid influx of sodium ions into the cell through channels, the slower influx of calcium ions, and the outflow of potassium ions.

Depolarization

18

The amount of blood that the heart is capable of pumping per minute is called ...

Cardiac output

19

... results when the pumping ability of the heart is impaired to the extent that sodium and water are retained in an effort to compensate for inadequate cardiac output.

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

20

ACE causes the conversion of ... to ...

Angiotensin I to angiotensin II

21

Nitroglycerin is supplied as an ointment. List the precautions that should be taken when applying.

*Wear gloves
*Rotate application sites
*Do not pet the animal at the application site
*Measure the dosage in inches
*Contact the DVM if a rash appears at the application site

22

What diuretic is used most commonly in the Tx of heart failure?

Lasix

23

What is hypokalemia?

An abnormally low potassium level in the blood

24

What are the primary goals of the dietary management of heart disease?

The primary goals are (1) sodium restriction
and (2) maintenance of good body weight and condition (reduction of obesity or cachexia).
In some instances, specific nutrient deficiencies, concurrent disease, and/or electrolyte disorders may need to be addressed.

25

List three effects of administration of catecholamines.

(1) Increased force of contraction
(2) An increase in blood pressure
(3) Elevated blood glucose levels

26

The heart is a ...-chambered pump that is responsible for moving blood through the vascular system.

Four

27

... is a faster-than-normal heart rate.

Tachycardia

28

When situations cause spontaneous depolarization of cardiac muscle or abnormalities of the conduction system, ... may occur.

Arrhythmia

29

Which of the following is NOT a way by which the CV system may increase its output during times of need. such as during athletic performance or to compensate for cardiac disease?
a. Decreasing HR to such an extent that the myocardium is protected from damage caused by the increased workload
b. Increasing the SV
c. Increasing the efficiency of the heart muscle
d. Physiologic heart enlargement; the heart is composed of muscle that responds to work by increasing its size and becoming stronger

a. Decreasing HR to such an extent that the myocardium is protected from damage caused by the increased workload

30

CHF results when the pumping ability of the heart is impaired to the extent that Na and H2O are retained in an effort to compensate for inadequate CO. It is associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
a. exercise intolerance
b. pulmonary edema
c. ascites
d. diaphragmatic hernia

d. diaphragmatic hernia

31

Digitalis is a (an) ... It is obtained from the dried leaves of the plant Digitalis purpurea.

Cardiac glycoside

32

Quinidine is an alkaloid that is obtained from cinchona plants or is prepared from quinine. It is used to treat ventricular arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia, and atrial fibrillation. Quinidine doses must be ... in patients who are being treated concurrently with digoxin.
a. decreased
b. increased

a. decreased

33

Gloves do not have to be worn when applying nitroglycerin.
a. True
b. False

b. False

34

Concurrent use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may ... the effectiveness of captopril.
a. increase
b. decrease

b. decrease

35

Furosemide may cause ... in patients.
a. hypoadrenocorticism
b. hypokalemia
c. hypocalcemia
d. hypothyroidism

b. hypokalemia

36

A 22-lb dog with moderate heart failure will be treated with pimobendan at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg for 2 weeks. The tablets to be used are 5 mg. How many will you dispense?

14 tablets

37

A 12-lb cat with hypertension due to chronic renal failure will be treated with benazepril tablets (5 mg) at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg. How many tablets will be given in each dose?

1/2 tablet

38

A 50-lb dog with moderate heart failure will be treated with enalapril 0.5 mg/kg twice a day for 14 days and then reevaluated. Enacard tablets (10 mg) are available. How many will you dispense?

28 tablets

39

A 10-lb dog with advanced heart failure will be treated with furosemide at 8 mg/kg IV. Salix injection (50 mg/mL) will be used. How much will you draw up?

0.7 mL

40

A hyperthyroid, hypertensive 8-lb cat will be treated with atenolol at 7 mg/kg, once a day for 3 weeks. Tenormin tablets (25 mg) will be dispensed. How many will you dispense?

21 tablets