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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Exam 1 Deck (39):
1

The study of the evolutionary history of organisms

Systematics or phylogeny

2

Cyanophora paradoxica

Modern prokaryote living in a eukaryotic cell. Symbiotic relationship.

3

Based on nucleotide sequences in the genomes organisms
Genes for rRNA

Molecular clock

4

A group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves

Eukaryotic species

5

A population of cells with similar characteristics

Prokaryotic species

6

A pure culture
A population of cells derived from a single parent

Clone

7

Absorbs dissolved organic matter through it's plasma membrane to obtain raw materials for vital functions

Fungus

8

A population of viruses with similar characteristics (morphology, genes, enzymes) that occupies a particular ecological niche

Viral species

9

1) they arose form replicating strands of nucleic acids
2) they developed from degenerative cells that through the generations lost their ability to survive independently
3) they coevolved with host cells

Hypotheses on the origin of viruses

10

Not nutritive media

Transport media

11

The science of serum and immune responses that are evident in serum

Serology

12

Microorganisms that enter an animals body and stimulate the production of antibodies

Antigenic

13

Proteins that circulate in the blood and combine in a highly specific way with the bacteria that causes their production

Antibodies

14

Solutions of antibodies used in the identification of Microorganisms

Antiserum

15

1) Samples of unknown bacterium are placed in a drop of saline on each of several slides
2) different known antisera are added to each sample
3) resulting clump is a positive

Slide agglutination test

16

Strains within species of bacteria that have different antigens

Serotypes, serovars, or biovars

17

Flesh eating bacteria

Streptococcus pyogenes

18

Elisa
Known antibodies are placed in (and adhere to) the wells of a microplate and an unknown type of bacteria is added to each well, serological test

Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay

19

Serological test identifies antibodies

Western blotting

20

Test for determining which phages a bacterium is susceptible
Highly specialized

Phage typing

21

Moving fluid containing bacteria is forced through a small opening
Method detects a difference in electrical conductivity (presence)
Or the fluid is illuminated by a laser, the scattering of light providing information about cell size shape Density and surface which is analyzed by a computer
Shows physical and chemical characteristics

Flow cytometry

22

Expressed as the % of guanine + cytosine
A difference of more than 10%? Probably not related

DNA base composition

23

Using restriction enzymes to cut restriction fragments then separating these using electrophoresis
Comparing the # and sizes of restriction Fragments that are produced from Different organisms provides information about their similarities and differences

DNA fingerprinting

24

Increase the amount of microbial DNA to levels that can be tested by using gel electrophoresis/Makes use of PCR
If a primer for a specific organism is used, the presence of amplified DNA indicates that you have the organism

NATTs, nucleic acid amplification tests

25

Measures the ability of DNA from one organism to hybridize with another
DNA to DNA, DNA to RNA, RNA to RNA (RNA transcript will hybridize with it's DNA template)

Nucleic acid hybridization

26

Nucleic acid hybridization to detect specific DNA
Use of a probe

Southern blotting

27

The science of classification and identification of organisms
Common reference
Universal language
Taxa are categories

Taxonomy

28

rDNA Being used to determine phylogenetic relationships among organisms

Ribotyping

29

1) all cells contain ribosomes
2) RNA genes have undergone few changes over time (Same signature sequences)
3) cells do not have to be cultured In a lab (DNA can be amplified using PCR)

Reasons Ribotyping is so great

30

Fluorescent dye labeled RNA or DNA probes are used to stain Microorganisms In place
Cells are treated so the probe enters and reacts with target DNA
Used to determine identity, abundance, and activity of Microorganisms

FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization)

31

Contains specific probes
Tagged DNA will bind only to the complementary DNA on the surface

DNA chip

32

Identification based on successive questions, each question having two possible answers (little to do with phylogenetic relationships)

Dichotomous key

33

Maps that show evolutionary relationships among organisms

1) two rRNA are aligned
2) % similarity are calculated
3) horizontal branches are drawn in length proportional to calculated similarity

Cladograms

34

The evolutionary history of a group of organisms
Taxonomy shows this

Phylogeny

35

Closely related strains constitue a species

In bacteria

36

Kingdoms

Bacteria archaea animalia plantae fungi

37

Currently being assigned to kingdoms

Protists

38

For studying Morphological characteristics

Differential staining

39

Southern blotting DNA chips and FISH

Examples of nucleic acid hybridization