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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (32):
1

The shorter the wavelength used

The greater the magnification

2

A measure of the light bending ability of a medium

Refractive index

3

Compound light microscope produces

Brightfield illumination

4

Used to see live organisms, produces a dark background

Darkfield microscopy

5

Used to see the internal structure of live cells, shades of gray to black

Phase contrast microscopy

6

Uses two beams of light, bright colors and appears 3-d

Differential interference microscopy

7

Takes advantage of fluorescence (the ability of a substance to absorb short wavelengths of light), uses florochromes, bright object against a black background

Fluorescence microscopy

8

Uses antibodies (natural defense molecules that are produced by humans and many animals In Reaction to a foreign substance or antibody) which combine with a fluorochrome

Immuno fluorescence

9

Used to reconstruct a 3-d image, used with computers

Confocal microscopy

10

2 photons, red light, used to excite a chlorophore, depth of 1000 mg

Two photon microscopy

11

Living cells, sound wave interpretation

Scanning acoustic microscopy

12

Ability of lenses to distinguish between two points that are a specified distance apart

Resolution

13

Finely focused beam of electrons from an electron gun passes through a specially prepared ultra thin section of a specimen, viruses or cell structures

Transmission electron microscope

14

Primary electrons sweep across the specimen and knock electrons from it's surface

Scanning electron microscope

15

Structures that appear as a result of the preparation method

Artifacts

16

Tungsten probe, can resolve features that are only 1/100 the size of an atom

Scanning tunneling microscope

17

Metal and diamond probe, forced down on specimen, produces 3-d image

Atomic force

18

Cation

Basic dyes

19

Anion

Acidic dyes

20

Coloring the Microorganisms with a dye that emphasizes certain structures

Staining

21

Salts composed of a positive and negative ion one ion is colored and known as the chromophore (basic dyes: cation, acidic dyes: anion). Bacteria are negatively charged so cations are attracted

Stains

22

Cystal violet, methylene blue, malachite green, Safarinin

Basic dyes

23

Colors stain the background

acidic dyes

24

Aqueous or alcohol solution of a single basic dyed

Simple stains

25

Increases the affinity of a stain for a biological specimen (coats flagellum)

Mordant

26

React differently with different kinds of bacteria to distinguish them (gram staining and acid fast)

Differential stains

27

Bacteria that retain purple dye after alcohol has tried to
Decolorize them, thicker Peptidoglycan, killed easily with Pennicillians and cephalosporins

Gram positive

28

Loose their purple after decolorization, Safranin turns pink, lipopolysaccharide, Cv-1 is washed through thin Peptidoglycan, resistant to antibiotics

Gram negative

29

Only bacteria with waxy cell walls, mycobacterium and nocardia, pink or red

Acid fast staining

30

Used to color parts of Microorganisms like Endospores, flagella or capsules

Special stains

31

Gelatinous covering

Capsule

32

Special resistant, dormant structures formed within a cell that protects bacterium from adverse environmental conditions

Endospores