Flashcards in Chapter 5 Exam 2 Deck (24):
The breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones, enzyme regulated chemical reactions that release energy. ATP synthesis.
Reactions which use water and in which chemical bonds are broken (in catabolism).
Enzyme regulated energy requiring reactions. The building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones. Often involves dehydration synthesis (reaction that releases water) Include the formation of proteins from amino acids. Endergonic. ATP breakdown.
The sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism
Explains how chemical reactions occur and how certain factors affect the rates of those reactions. All Adams, ions, and molecules are continuously moving and colliding with one another. Energy transfer by these particles in the collision can disrupt their electrons structures enough to break chemical bonds or form new bonds.
Velocities of colliding particles, their energy, and the specific chemical configurations.
Chemical reaction is based on what?
Collision energy required for a chemical reaction. Is the amount of energy needed to disrupt the stable electron configuration of any specific molecule so that the electrons can be rearranged.
The frequency of collisions containing sufficient energy to bring about a reaction.
Substances that can speed up a chemical reaction without being permanently altered themselves. Lower activation energy.
Enzymes act on a specific substance
The substrate contacts the active site, enzyme substrate complex, substrate is transformed into products, products are released, enzyme recovers and changed.
The mechanism of enzymatic action
Intermediate compound forms, enzyme plus substrate
Enzyme substrate complex
Non-protein component of an enzyme
Nad+, functions as an electron carrier in catabolic (energy yielding) reactions.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, coenzyme
Nadp+ primarily involved in anabolic (energy requiring) reactions.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, coenzyme
Temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and the presence or absence of inhibitors.
Things that influence the activity of an enzyme
Fill the active site of an enzyme and compete with the normal substrate for the active site. Sulfanilamide/paba
Inhibition by interacting with another part of the enzyme
The inhibitor binds to a site on the enzyme other than the substrates binding site call the allosteric site
This control mechanism stops The cell from making more of a substance that it needs and thereby wasting chemical resources.
Feedback inhibition or and product inhibition
In many metabolic pathways than product can be Allosterically inhibited by the activity of one of the enzymes earlier in the pathway. Usually act on the first enzyme in the metabolic pathway
End product inhibition
Unique type of RNA like protein enzymes, functions as a catalyst, has active sites that binding to substrates, and are not used up in a chemical reaction. Cut and splice RNA that are involved in protein synthesis at ribosomes.
An electron is transferred from molecule a to molecule b in the process molecule a is oxidized, and molecule b is reduced.